- that Mammie Taylor should really be called Mayme Taylor, was born on Ontario Beach, and why The Only William Schmidt advised against consuming lime juice or iced drinks?
- that a blueprint for the later Manhattan cocktail was known as early as the 1440s – as aqua vitae and wine was mixed?
- that Giuseppe Garibaldi drank a B&B on the occasion of the capture of a flag of the 61st Pomeranian Regiment in January 1871?
- that the first Rob Roy was served in London in 1884 under the name Manhattan Cocktail?
- Did you know that sangaree was not invented by Mr. Gordon in London in 1736, but was one of the most widely drunk drinks in the Caribbean as early as the 17th century, and that it originated there, and does not mean ‘grey blood’, but ‘not tipsy drink’?
- what distinguishes a Cooler from a Sour or a Cocktail?
Because even if it was not at Sedan, it was at Dijon. This city was defended by Giuseppe Garibaldi to prevent the enemy from advancing southwards. On 21, 22 and 23 January 1871 Dijon was attacked by 4000 Prussians. Garibaldi emerged victorious from this battle, capturing a flag of the 61st Pomeranian Regiment on 23 January. Against this background, it is not quite as improbable as first thought that cognac was drunk with Bénédictine on the occasion of this victory.
Mauro Mahjoub drew our attention to a publication that provided information about the participants in the run-up to the championship. It says: “robert carne (from Bar Viel). Mathematics leads to everything, provided you can get out of it, … is a famous formula. When Robert Carme left the Lycée Saint-Louis, he wanted to be an engineer, then a stockbroker. But suddenly, on his father’s orders, he became a cellar master at Ciro’s, where he got to know the great wines. After his service, which he completes as a sub-lieutenant, he finds the atmosphere of the bars with fondness. At Chatam under Albert and at Scribe with André, he perfected his skills, and Bar Viel, which now has him attached, will certainly not lose its reputation with him.” [6-33]
– “robert carne (du bar Viel). Les mathématiques mènent à tout à la condition d’en sortir, … selon la formule célèbre. Robert Carme, à la sortie du lycée Saint-Louis, voulait devenir ingénieur, puis commis d’agent de change. Mais le voilà brusquement, par décision paternelle, caviste au Ciro’s où il apprend les grands crus. Après son service qu’il termine comme sous-lieutenant, il retrouve avec prédilection l’atmosphère des bars. Au Chatam, sous les ordres d’Albert, au Scribe avec André, il se perfectionne, et ce n’est certes pas avec lui que le bar Viel, qui se l’est maintenant attaché, perdra sa réputation.“
Our definition of what a Horse’s Neck is is confirmed by the St. Louis Republic, published on 9 September 1900. It states: “Did you ever try a ‘horse neck?’ ” asked James H. McTague. “Now, that is not a brand-new drink, but its great popularity is practically new. And a ‘horse neck’ can be drunk by prohibitionist or toper – there is just a little difference in the making of it. First you take a long glass; then you drop a cube of ice in it; then you carefully peel a lemon, so that none of the lemon adheres to the peeling, and drop this peeling into the glass, with one end hooked around the ice and the other end hooked to the rim of the glass. If your customer likes liquor, the thing to do now is to pour in a pony of brandy; but if he is a temperance man, leave out the brandy; the drink will not suffer. Then take a pint of ginger ale – it must be good ginger ale if it is to suit an educated and discriminating palate – and fill up the glass. That is all ther is to making the drink; but if there is a man who can honestly say he doesn’t like it after it is made I would like to have his photograph. It is a drink that is good in summer, in winter, in fall and in spring – it is good all the time.””
When and where was Horse’s Neck created? Newspaper articles provide information about this. The Evening Times writes in 1906: “”Horse’s Neck,” a ginger ale drink flavored with lemon peel, originated in the Bohemian clubs in London. The name is derived from the long, tapering glass in which it is served.”
Audrey came up with the idea of using Cynar as a bitter in the Manhattan Cocktail at the New York restaurant ‘Raoul’s’. She reports: “We were drinking Manhattans right then, and I wondered what one would be like if I substituted Cynar for the Angostura bitters. Rittenhouse tied it together.”
The origin of Mamie Taylor on Ontario Beach
Fortunately, there is a newspaper article that appeared in The Morning Telegraph on 12 July 1900, because it clearly gives information about the creation of Mamie Taylor. So before we go into other reports, let’s introduce this one. It states: “ORIGIN OF THE “MAMIE TAYLOR”. Actress herself Writes Its History. Born at Ontario Beach. First Man to Launch the Drink Was an Obscure Bartender Near Rochester. – The origin of the “Mamie Taylor” is no longer in doubt. The Morning Telegraph has succeeded in discovering the author of the drink and the story of its launching, which dates back two years ago, although it was not introduced in New York until about two months ago. It was then alleged that the bar ingredient concoction was the invention of a Washington actress, but the following communication from one, none other than Mamie Taylor, explains its birth: “Bloomington, III., July 9, 1900. Editor Morning Telegraph: As it seems I have had greatness thrust upon me to you I will divulge the secret, not of my past life, but of the origin of the now famous Mamie Taylor. The first man to launch this excellent but insidious drink upon the sea of highballs was an obscure bartender at Ontario Beach, near Rochester, N.Y. This was two seasons ago. I was then prima donna of an opera company there, and that accounts for the drink’s tardy appearance in New York city, for the run on Mamie Taylors at the beach was so great we reserved all rights to the drink until one wretched day a thirsty Thespian revealed the formula to a bold bad New Yorker. And now my salary has quadrupled, not because of my art but on account of my sociable qualities. Having now relieved thousands of eager truth seekers, let me hope that this splendid beverage will ever be as popular with the public as it is with, Yours truely, MAMIE TAYLOR. With “A Brass Monkey.”” The above communication evidently settles the much mooted question and incidentally does away with the claim from Washington. “As a matter of fact,” said the chief apothecary at the Fifth Avenue bar, “the drink did not come to New York from Washington, but directly from Ontario Beach, and Miss Taylor’s story is correct in every particular. The bartender of whom she writes originated the drink at her suggestion and named it after her.””
This story is also taken up by The Post Standard of 7 March 1902. It states: “It was while Miss Taylor was the prima donna of an opera company playing at Ontario Beach, near Rochester, in 1899,” he said, “that she was asked with a number of other members of the company to go out sailing on the lake. As the day was hot and the breeze rather strong, the party returned after a few hours longing for some cooling refreshments. When Miss Taylor was asked what she would have she expressed the wish for a long but not strong drink – in fact, a claret lemonade. When the drink was served it was very evident that it wasn’t a claret lemonade, for it looked like a delicious long drink of sparkling champagne. On tasting it Miss Taylor found it much to her liking, but asked to have the flavor softened with a piece of lemon peel. When this was done the new combination drink was declared a complete success. Bystanders had been watching the proceedings and noticing the evident enjoyment with which Miss Taylor and a few of her friends relished in new drink they finally asked the hotel keeper what drink it was that was being served to them and without hesitation the hotel man replied “a Mamie Taylor” and the name seemed to meet with instantaneous favour and has become famous all over the country.”
It should be mentioned here that the artist’s real name was not Mamie Taylor, but Mayme Taylor. Apparently, however, everyone called her ‘Mamie’.
Other newspaper reports
The Mamie Taylor reached New York in 1900, according to the first report, but the combination was already known there, as the Savannah Morning News reported on 17 June 1900: “New Drink Said to Be Even More Potent Than “Cyclone Punch.” From the New York Press. As soon as convention week opens in Philadelphia thirsty statesmen will be introducer to a drink invented in Washington, and said to be new to the parched gullets of the national capital. It is called the “Mamie Taylor.” To New Yorkers, the only new thing about it is its name. This is the way they make it in Washington: Squeeze a lime into a tall glass, drop the lime into the juice, add a handful of cracked ice, pour on that a “hooker” of Scotch whisky and fill up the glass with ginger ale. Stir and drink, but don’t drink more than two.”
The Sun also picks up on the new fashion drink on 20 June 1900: “MAMIE TAYLOR. Mostly Ginger Ale, With a Little Scotch and a Bit of Lemon Peel. A correspondent writes to THE SUN to ask what are the component parts of the drink which seems to be so popular in Philadelphia just now, and is known as the Mamie Taylor. The only William, who holds forth in Broadway opposite of the Post Office, and is an authority on liquid delights, said this about the Mamie Taylor yesterday: “The Mamie Taylor is not new. I used to mix them years ago, but they went out of fashion, and have only recently been taken up again. A Mamie Taylor is a long drink of ginger ale, whith a little Scotch whiskey and a bit of lemon peel in it. It is a very simple drink and very cooling in the summer. It gave way to the ‘Whisper of the Forest,’ and the ‘Murder of the Shells,’ both excellent summer drinks, but it appears as though I would have to get my hand in on Mamie Taylors again, for since those politicians began to drink them in Philadelphia, there has been a steady demand for them here.” William does not know the origin of the name of the Mamie Taylor, but thinks he can find out by consulting some of the old records from which he wrote his first book on mixed drinks. If he does find out he has promised to let THE SUN know.”
At this point we must now cast doubt on our statistics. The statistics say that a Mamie Taylor is a mixture of ginger ale, scotch and lime (or lemon). But now the statements of Mamie Taylor and William Schmidt have a weighty say in the matter. Mamie Taylor is said to have specifically asked for a lemon zest, and ‘the Only William’ Schmidt also speaks of a zest. So it seems that the Mamie Taylor was originally a mixture of ginger ale, scotch and lemon zest, nothing more than a Horse’s neck with scotch? This is another indication that it is difficult to adequately separate Highball, Taylor and Horse’s Neck.
In Texas, too, such a mixture as the Mamie Maylor had been known before. This is how the ‘Mixer and Server’ reported it on 15 July 1900: ““MAMIE TAYLOR.” A New York man has introduced a new drink to Philadelphia; at least, he says it’s new. It is concocted of cracked ice, Scotch whisky, the juice of a lime and a bottle of ginger ale. The New Yorker invited Edward Green, of Texas, son of Hetty Green, to sample it, remarking as the statesman from Texas tasted it: “That’s the newest drink out.” “Probably it is in New York,” said Green, “but they have been using it in Texas for 30 years. We used to call it ‘The Scotch Lassie.’ What do you call it?” “A ‘Mamie Taylor’,” said the New Yorker.”
We can see from these sources that the name ‘Mamie Taylor’ was something new, but also that such a mixture was nothing new, but was already known in New York. In Texas, it had been known for 30 years, i.e. since 1870. However, these reports also confirm that numerous explanations about the origin of Mamie Taylor were being discussed. She is said to have been invented in Washington and to have come from there to Philadelphia. Alternatively, it is reported that she came to Philadelphia from New York.
Even the Washington Weekly Post was of the opinion on 17 July 1900 that the Mamie Taylor had been invented in Washington three weeks earlier: “THE “MAMIE TAYLOR.” How the Latest Drink Was Born here in Washington. From the New York Telegraph. … Since the introduction of the drink, some three weeks ago, much matter has been added to the profane history of this city, and whole books have been enacted into the science of boozeology. For the “Mamie Taylor” epidemic was not confined alone to the craft which writes pieces for the newspapers, but soon spread to all the vocations, and wrought havoc with the professions. … Extra bartenders have been placed on duty in the all of the larger buffets (all barrooms with mirrors and lavish display of cut glass are buffets), and no man knows where the end may be. The liquid terror which has aroused even Washington was originated and invented by Col. Willis P. King, known widely as a newspaper man attached to a press association, and he has since been endeavoring to dodge the awful responsibility of the conception. … Within three days every cafe in the city was plying a great trade in the mixture, and men fought madly to get to the bars. …”
While William Schmidt was still talking about using lemon zest, the Saint Paul Globe of 2 July 1900 is of a different opinion. There they use limes, as our statistical analysis suggests. They write: “New Summer Drinks and how they are made. The “Ice Trust Cocktail” is here, likewise the “Mamie Taylor,” the new drink invented by a party of Washington correspondents. Each is a “long, cool drink,” but the former is extolled more by the local beverage dispensers. The “Mamie Taylor” is made by squeezeing a lime into a tall, thin glass, then throwing in a quantity of cracked ice. Over this a good sized hooker of Scotch whisky is poured, and then the glass is filled with ginger ale. At the capital the “Mamie Taylor” achieved instant popularity. It seems to have superseded completely the gin and whisky rickey and the Scotch highball.”
So why was William Schmidt talking about lemons and not limes? There is a reason for that, and fortunately the same newspaper report also enlightens us about it: “William is constitutionally opposed to limes for reasons about to be explained …”Limes are all right, but lime juice is deadly in its action on the stomach if taken too liberally, cutting the lining literally to shreds. Intelligent men who consider the after effects do not drink rickey except occasionally. As a matter of fact, long headed men do not drink icy beverages much. You know you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink ice water. Some men have as much horse sense. If we drank cold water, not iced water, we’d all live longer and live better. Our forefathers lived longer and looked better at fifty than we do, and they never used ice in the way we do.””
The use of lime juice is also confirmed in the St. Louis Republic of 9 September 1900: “In the saloons, it is stated that there is only one brand new drink of the year anywhere in the country, and that is the “Mamie Taylor.” It had its origin in Kansas City, Philadelphia or Washington – authorities differ as to place, but agree that it was born in a political atmosphere. It has sprung into much favor, and every acquaintance becomes a friend. The “Mamie Taylor” is nothing more or less than a Scotch rickey, with the regulation amount of ice, Scotch whiskey and lime juice, but with ginger taking the place of seltzer. It has had a big run for two months, and the men at the bars declare it will be as popular in winter as in summer. … “The high ball and the rickey are the popular things, and will continue to hold their own,” it was said at the Planters. “And the ‘Mamie Taylor’ is the best rickey that is made. I don’t know where it originated, but it was at Washington or Philadelphia or Kansas City; and I don’t know who was the author of it, but the chances are that he was a politician with a satiated palate and an inquiring turn of mind. At any rate, he earned a panel on the monument of fame when he evolved it.” “It is the mint this year – mint, high balls and rickeys,” it was said at the Southern. “Rickeys, perhaps, hold the place of first prominence, … . This ‘Mamie Taylor’ is the greatest rickey that is called for just now. It has had a wonderful leap into popularity. It is only a few months old, but everybody who travels much knows.””
And indeed, made with lime juice, the Mamie Taylor is something like a Rickey made with ginger ale instead of soda.
1884 George Winter: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 52. Manhattan Cocktail.
(Use large bar glass.)
Two or three dashes of Peruvian Bitters;
One to two dashes of gum syrup;
One-half wine glass of whiskey;
One-half wine glass of Vermouth;
Fill glass three-quarters full of fine shaved ice, mix well
with a spoon, strain in fancy cocktail glass and serve.
… Nevertheless, the idea of mixing wine with a distillate had been around long before; and vermouth is basically nothing other than a kind of wine. How do we arrive at this statement? David Wondrich points out in the Oxford Companion that the Italian physician Michele Savonarola wrote as early as the 1440s that it was difficult and unpleasant for some to take aqua vitae even in small quantities, which is why in such cases it should then be mixed with wine, water, or beer.
… This article is confusing. Why would you make a Manhattan cocktail with gin? We can only think of it this way: As outlined earlier, there was initial confusion about what a Manhattan Cocktail was. The writer of our lines will probably have learned that it was a cocktail with vermouth, without the hint that it had to be a whiskey cocktail. Without further ado, he took a gin cocktail and added the vermouth. This is an extremely important find. It proves that Martinez cocktails or Martini cocktails were being drunk by 1883 at the latest, even if they weren’t called that yet. This is somewhat reminiscent of the Rob Roy, which was only given its name when Manhattan cocktails had long since been prepared with Scotch; this happened at least from 1884 onwards.
Other newspaper reports also write about the Manhattan Cocktail being unknown, even as late as 1889 in Connecticut: “the bartender seemed dazed for a moment. … But the bartender soon rallied and began making the drink. In a large heavy “schooner” glass, he proceeded to place three or four lumps of white sugar, and saturated them with a liberal supply of bitters, enough for a dozen cocktails. Over this he poured some whiskey, added a gill or so of rum, put in a dash of brandy, and poured over all a wineglass of gin. Then he squeezed half a lemon into the mixture, shook it well together, and poured the whole foaming liquid into a beer glass. The prematurely tender young man had seen the operation, and had misgivings as to how the “cocktail” would act upon him, but, with the interest of the town centered upon him, he could not back down. He had called for a Manhattan cocktail; there was a Manhattan cocktail on the bar, and he closed his eyes and drank it. Then he went out into the front room, sat down by the stove, and meditated upon the wickedness of the world.” And the bartender boasted afterwards: “”Did you see that feller from York come in here and ask for a Manhattan cocktail?” he asked the other patrons. “Tryin’ to guy me. Thought I was green. But I was on to him like a fly. I fixed him. Gave him everything in the place. Gin, whiskey, rum, everything. Mixed it all up, and gave it to him. Set it on the bar, and he drank it. See him? Didn’t know the difference. These fly fellers can’t beat me. Manhattan cocktail! Huh! ain’t no such thing.””
On 9 December 1883, the Sunday Herald reported from Boston: “A Manhattan cocktail, by the way, is a very good drink just before dinner. It is the ordinary vermouth cocktail with a foundation of first-rate Bourbon whiskey. I do not advise the BOSTON HERALD readers to drink anything, but, if they will drink, I think they will agree with me that a Manhattan cocktail is about as good as anything that can be manufactured.”
The bar at the Hoffman House in Madison Square had an international reputation as the best bar in the city and possibly in the world. Anyone who worked there as a bartender was qualified to work in any other bar. Among these bartenders were Frank Meyer and Harry Craddock, who later worked in Paris, and numerous other bartenders who became local celebrities in New York. The bar caused a great stir when it reopened after extensive renovations in 1882. The Cleveland Leader’s New York correspondent wrote of it: “There is nothing cheap here, and few kings have taken their toddy in better quarters.” The windows were stained glass, the bar and wall panelling was carved mahogany, the mosaic floor was marble. The walls were hung with paintings, for example by William Turner or Antonio da Correggio. The showpiece was ‘Nymphs_and_Satyr’ by William Adolphe Bouguereau, which had been acquired for $10,000. In 2022, this would be almost $300,000. On the wall also hung a tapestry that had once belonged to Napoleon III.
… Contradicting this are the statistics of whiskey production in the United States, because they paint a different picture. In 1899, when rye whiskey was at its peak, 126.2 million litres of whiskey were produced, 62% of which was bourbon and only 38% rye. This may be an indication for us that a Manhattan cocktail should preferably be made with rye.
In 1891, the Kansas City Times wrote that the Manhattan Cocktail should be garnished with a cherry. That same month, in March, the New York Herald wrote that this was a fad that had now arrived in the Manhattan Cocktail. Bar owners, however, complained that the increased demand and levies were driving up the price of cherries. Finally, in November 1897, the Herald writes: “Cocktails no longer contain a cherry at the bottom of the glass … Cherries are going out, along with other sweeteners in drinks.”
… Finally, a book from 1916 on the history of the Manhattan Club provides information on the mixed drinks that are said to have been invented there. It is written that the most popular is the Sam Ward, as well as Frappé New Orleans à la Graham, Royal Cup, Manhattan Cocktail à la Gilbert (a mixture of Amer Picon, French vermouth and whiskey), Manhattan Cooler à la McGregor, Columbus Cocktail (under this name, however, there are different recipes) and the Brut Cocktail. The Manhattan Cocktail is also mentioned: “The celebrated Manhattan cocktail was inaugurated at the Club. This consists of equal portions of vermouth and whiskey, with a dash of orange bitters.”
A newspaper article from 1883 about which mixed drinks are drunk in Chicago also makes a distinction between gin and Old Tom gin and thus supports our thesis.
Nonetheless, even earlier this insight was not common knowledge, for even ‘the Only’ William Schmidt “is constitutionally opposed to limes for reasons about to be explained … “Limes are all right, but lime juice is deadly in its action on the stomach if taken too liberally, cutting the lining literally to shreds.””
The Oaxaca Old-Fashioned was Phil’s third mixed drink in which he used mezcal, after a daiquiri variant and the ‘Cinder’. He doesn’t remember whom he made the first Oaxaca Old-Fashioned for, but it was a “right-off-the-cuff humdinger. The Oaxaca was invented in my favorite time of Death & Co. I feel like it was one big cocktail lab with a slew of guinea pigs – regulars – who would anxiously await the new works in progress every visit.”
1884 Charlie Paul: American and other drinks. Seite 32. Manhattan Cocktail.
Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in three
or four drops of angostura bitters, ditto of plain
syrup; add half a liqueur glassful of vermouth,
half wine glassful of Scotch whiskey; stirr well
with spoon and put small piece of lemon on top.
We originally started this post with a report about Mr. Gordon, who was said to have invented the Sangaree in 1736. However, we have found older evidence to prove that Mr. Gordon was not the inventor as claimed in the Gentleman’s Magazine. Our findings make it necessary to make some major adjustments to this post and start with a fair amount of explanation before we can go into Mr. Gordon, where our post originally began.
To make it easier for you to follow our explanations, the result of our research should be anticipated: a Sangaree is a mixture of (Madeira) wine, optionally water, sugar, citrus and optionally spice; it can thus be considered a wine punch.
Hannah Wooley, 1670
We begin with Hannah Woolley. In 1670 her book ‘The Queen-like Closet or Rich Cabinet’ was published. In it she published a recipe for a very special lemonade: “To make Limonado. Take one Quart of Sack, half a Pint of Brandy, half a Pint of fair Water, the Juice of two Limons, and some of the Pill, so brew them together, with Sugar and drink it.”
A ‘sack’ is an obsolete term for a white fortified wine imported from Spain or Portugal. According to its origin, there were ‘Canary sack’ from the Canary Islands, ‘Malaga sack’ from Malaga, ‘Palm sack’ from Palma de Mallorca and ‘Sherris sack’ from Jerez de la Frontera. ‘Sherris sack’ was shortened and found its way into the English language as ‘Sherry’ for fortified wine from Jerez. Since sherry is practically the only one of these wines that is still widely exported and consumed, ‘sack’, without the addition of a name, is often, but not entirely correctly, used as an old synonym for sherry.
In this specific case, this means that Hannah Wooley is referring to nothing other than a fortified wine from Spain or Madeira. Her recipe is something like a wine punch, even though brandy and water are used in addition to the fortified wine. What is particularly noteworthy here is that the mixture is not called a punch, but a lemonade. This refers to the Indian origin of the punch: it is the lemonade that was prepared there not only with water, but also with palm wine or arrack. Probably inspired by this – consciously or unconsciously – Hannah Wooley prepared her lemonade with sack instead of palm wine, added a distillate, brandy instead of arrack, and called the whole thing ‘limonado’.
Jean-Baptiste Labat, 1694 & 1700
The oldest mention of a sangaree-like name for a wine punch that we have been able to find so far is by Jean-Baptiste Labat. In his book ‘Nouveau voyage aux îles de l’Amérique’, ‘New Voyage to the Islands of America’, published in 1724, he reports from the year 1694 in the first volume: “The English also drink much of it, and are not more refined than the Spaniards; they have invented two or three kinds of spirits, the use and abuse of which have passed to our French, who are always very eager to imitate what they see bad in our neighbours. The first is called Sang-gris, and consists of Madeira wine, which is put into a bowl of crystal or faience with sugar, lemon juice, a little cinnamon and clove powder, plenty of nutmeg, and a crust of toasted or even somewhat burnt bread. When you think the spirit has taken on the flavour of the things you put in it, you pass it through a fine cloth. Nothing is more agreeable, the taste of lemon makes it seem refreshing, and those who invented it claim so; but you can easily tell by what is in its composition that it is very heating, and that it gives a slight headache. The second is the Limonade à l’Angloise [English-style lemonade]. It is made from Canary wine, to which sugar, lemon juice, cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and a little amber essence are added. This drink is as delicious as it is dangerous. … The third drink of the English is the ponche, their favourite, which consists of two parts brandy and one part water. The same ingredients are used as in the Sang-gris, except the lemon, which is replaced by egg yolk, which makes it as thick as brouet. They claim that this is an excellent thing for the breast and very nutritious. Milk is often used instead of water, and this is most appreciated. Since it is not permissible to judge tastes, everyone can make up their own minds about this mishmash as they wish.”
– “Les Anglois en consomment aussi beaucoup, & ne sont pas plus délicats que les Espagnols; ils ont inventé deux ou trois sortes de liqueurs, dont l’usage & l’abus sont passez chez nos François, toûjours très-ardens imitateurs de ce qu’ils voyent de mauvais chez nos Voisins. La premiere s’appelle Sang-gris; elle est composée de vin de Madere que l’on met dans une jatte de cristal ou de fayance avec du sucre, du jus de citron, un peu de canelle & de gerofle enpoudre, beaucoup de muscade & une croute de pain rotie, & même un peu brûlée. Lorsqu’on juge que a liqueur a pris le goût des choses qu’on y a mises, on la passe par un linge fin. Rien n’est plus agreable, le gout de citron la fait paroître rafraichissante, & ceux qui l’ont inventée le pretendent aussi; mais il est aisé de voir par ce qui entre dans sa composition qu’elle est très-chaude, & qu’elle donne aisément à la tête. La seconde est la Limonade à l’Angloise. Elle se fait avec du vin de Canarie, dans lequel on met du sucre, du jus de citron, de la canelle, de la muscade, du gérofle & un peu d’essence d’ambre. Cette boisson est aussi délicieuse qu’elle est dangereuse. … La troisiéme boisson des Anglois est la Ponche, c’est leur boisson favorite; elle est composée de deux parties d’eau-de-vie sur une d’eau. On y met les mêmes ingrédiens que dans le Sang-gris, excepté le citron, à la place duquel on met des jaunes d’œufs qui la redent épaisse comme du broüet. Ils pretendent que c’est une chose excellente pour la proitrine & sort nourrissante. Souvent au lieu d’eau on y met du lait, & c’est la plus estimée. Comme il n’est pas permis de juger des goûts, chacun pourra porter tel jugement qu’il voudra de ce salmigondis.“
According to this report, there were three important drinks of the English: Sangaree, English Lemonade and Punch. The difference between Sangaree and English Lemonade is that Sangaree was made with Madeira wine, while English Lemonade was made with wine from the Canary Islands. It is also interesting that even the Sangaree was prepared with toasted bread, as was also customary with the Punch and as we describe in detail there.
Why the author thought that punch should be prepared with egg yolk instead of lemon and therefore be thick like a brouet will probably always be a mystery. Perhaps the recipe for punch was not yet standardised in all parts of the world.
A brouet, by the way, is a soup- or porridge-like, semi-liquid dish made from simple ingredients, such as pork, blood or salt. It was eaten not only in ancient Greece but also in the Middle Ages.
One might assume that Sangaree and English Lemonade show the different import routes of England and its colonies: Portuguese Madeira wine for Sangaree, Spanish Canary wine for English Lemonade. Why was this so?
Portugal regained its final independence in 1668. In return, however, it had to make concessions to England. As a result, Englishmen settled in Madeira to export wine from there, which Portuguese were not allowed to do. As part of his dissertation, Frederick H. Smith reported that the greatest threat to the French wine trade were the wine producers and traders from Porto and Madeira. The British Navigation Act of 1663 allowed Portuguese wines to be exported directly to British America. This privileged position of Portuguese wine was extended in 1703. This of course had an impact on the elites in British America: Portuguese wine was particularly popular among them – which confirms, we would like to interject, that they drank a lot of ‘sang-gris’ there.
In the second volume of his work ‘New Voyage to the Islands of America’, Jean Baptiste Labat reports from the island of Saint Christophle, now called Saint Kitts, in 1700: “The inhabitants, with whom I dined both on this voyage and after my return from Saint Domingue, had much silverware and on it bowls or dishes, with ponche, sang gris and other drinks”.
– “Les Habitans chez lesquels j‘ai mangé tant en ce voiage, au’a mon retour de Saint Domingue, avoient beaucoup d’argenterie, & sur tout de ces cuvettes ou jattes, où ils sont la ponche, le sang gris, & autres boissons.” [44-191]
Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1742
The ‘Dictionnaire universel de commerce’, the ‘Universal Encyclopaedia of Commerce’, published in 1742 obviously refers to Jean Baptiste Labat’s statements: “Lemonade in the English manner. It is made like sanggris, except for the Canary wine, which replaces the Madeira wine used for the other in the lemonade; amber essence is also added, which is not in sanggris. It is as delicious as it is dangerous. It is consumed in large quantities in the French and English islands of America. The name is an indication that it was invented by the latter.”
– “Limonade a l’Angloise. Elle se fait comme le sanggris, à l’exception du vin de Canarie, qui dans la Limonade tient lieu du vin de Madère, qui s’employé pour l’autre; on y met aussi de l’essence d’ambre qui n’est pas dans le sanggris. Elle est aussi délicieuse qu’elle est dangereuse. On en consomme quantité dans les Iles Françoises & Angloises de l’Amerique. Son nom marque assez que ce sont ces derniers qui l’ont inventée.“
What exactly sangris is is described in the following volume: “SANGGRIS. A kind of very strong drink consumed in large quantities in the French islands of America, whither it has come from the English islands. Sanggris is mixed of Madeira wine, which is put into a crystal or faience bowl, with sugar, lemon juice, a little cinnamon & cloves, plenty of nutmeg & a toasted & even somewhat burnt crust of bread. When the liqueur has taken on the flavour of the ingredients added to it, it is strained through a fine cloth. The liquor is agreeable, and the English consider it refreshing, which is difficult to understand, as all the drugs of which it is composed have a very high degree of heat.”
– “SANGGRIS. Sorte de boisson très forte dont il se consomme quantité dans les Iles Françoises de l’Amérique, où elle est passée des Iles Angloises. Le Sanggris est compofé de vin de Madère, que l’on met dans une jatte de cristal ou de fayance, avec du sucre, du jus de citron, un peu de canelle & de girofle, beaucoup de muscade & une croute de pain rotie & même un peu brûlée. Quand la liqueur a pris le goût des ingrédiens qu’on y a mêlés, on la passe dans un linge fin. Cette liqueur est agréable, & les Anglois la tiennent rafraîchissante, ce qu’il est difficile de comprendre, toutes les drogues qui la composent ayant un très grand degré de chaleur; ce qui est certain, c’est qu’elle donne beaucoup à la tête.“
Incidentally, this universal dictionary also adopts Jean Baptiste Labat’s description of the punch, according to which egg yolk should be used. But that is another story and is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness.
Several publications of the same year cite this universal encyclopaedia as a source for their entries on ‘Sanggris’ and ‘Lemonade a l’Angloise’, for example Johann Heinrich Zedler in 1742 in his Universal-Lexikon, the ‘Allgemeine Schatz-Kammer der Kauffmannschafft’ published in 1742. Since we have now found the texts, we publish them here anyway: “SANGGRIS is a very strong drink, of which a great deal is consumed in the French-American Islands, where it was brought from the English Islands. This drink is composed of wine of Madera, sugar, lemon juice, a little cinnamon and cloves, a lot of nutmeg and a toasted or even burnt bread crust. When the liquor has taken on the flavour of the ingredients, it is strained through a clear cloth. This drink is very pleasant, and the English consider it refreshing or cooling; this is difficult to comprehend, because all the substances of which it is composed, carry with them the greatest heat. This is certain, that it is very upsetting to the head. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.”
– “SANGGRIS ist ein sehr starckes Geträncke, davon sehr viel in den Frantzösisch-Americanischen Inseln verthan wird, wohin es aus den Englischen Inseln gebracht worden. Dieser Tranck ist zusammengesetzt aus Wein von Madera, Zucker, Citronen-Saffte, ein wenig Zimmet und Nelcken, viel Muscate und einer gerösteten oder auch gar verbrannten Brod-Rinde. Wenn der Liquor den Geschmack der Ingredientien angenommen hat, so seiget man ihn durch ein klar Tuch. Dieses Geträncke ist sehr angenehm, und die Engelländer halten es vor erfrischend oder kühlend; dieses ist schwer zu begreiffen, weil alle Specerey, daraus es bestehet, die größte Hitze bey sich führen. Dieses ist gewiß, daß es sehr in den Kopff steiget. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.“
“SANGGRIS is a very strong drink, of which a great deal is consumed in the French-American Islands, where it was brought from the English Islands. This drink is composed of wine of Madera, sugar, lemon juice, a little cinnamon and cloves, much muscatel and a toasted or even burnt bread crust. When the liquor has taken on the flavour of the ingredients, it is strained through a clear cloth. This drink is very pleasant, and the English consider it refreshing or cooling; this is difficult to comprehend, because all the substances of which it consists have the greatest heat about them. This is certain, that it is very heady. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.”
– “SANGGRIS, ist ein sehr starckes Geträncke, davon sehr viel in den Französisch-Americanischen Inseln verthan wird, wohin es aus den Englischen Inseln gebracht worden. Dieser Tranck ist zusammengesetzt aus Wein von Madera, Zucker, Citronen-Saffte, ein wenig Zimmet und Nelcken, viel Muscate und einer gerösten oder auch gar verbrannten Brodt Rinde. Wenn der Liquor den Geschmack der Ingredientien angenommen hat; so seihet man ihn durch ein klar Tuch. Dieses Geträncke ist sehr angenehm, und die Engelländer halten es vor erfrischend oder kühlend; dieses ist schwer zu begreiffen, weil alle Specerey, daraus es bestehet, die größte Hitze bey sich führen. Dieses ist gewiß, daß es sehr in Kopff steiget. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.“
“LIMONADE A L’ANGLOISE, this drink is prepared in the same way as the Sanggris, except that Canary-Sect is added to the lemonade and wine from Madera to the Sanggris. Amber essence is also put into it, which is not in the Sanggris. It is as pleasant as it is dangerous. It is used in great quantity in the French-English and American islands. Its name sufficiently indicates that the latter, namely the English, invented it. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.”
– “LIMONADE A L’ANGLOISE, dieser Tranck wird wie der Sanggris zubereitet, ausser daß zur Limonade Canarien-Sect, und zum Sanggris Wein von Madera kommt. Man thut auch Amber-Essentz darein, die im Sanggris nicht ist. Er ist so annehmlich als gefährlich. Man verthut dessen eine grosse Menge in den Französisch-Englisch- und Americanischen Inseln. Sein Nahme zeigt zur Genüge an, daß diese letzteren, nemlich die Engelländer, ihn erfunden haben. Savary Dict. Univ. de Commerce.«
The entry on Limonade a l’Angloise in the ‘Schatz-Kammer der Kauffmannschafft’ requires comment; it makes it necessary to briefly discuss the etymology of the word Sekt. The ‘Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache’ (Digital Dictionary of the German Language) states that ‘Sekt’ is understood to mean a sparkling wine. The word derives from the French ‘(vin) sec’, ‘dry, tart wine’, after the Latin ‘siccus’, which means ‘dry’. Originally, it was used to refer to wines from Spain and the Canary Islands made from ‘dried berries’. The word is said to have acquired the meaning ‘sparkling wine’ only through the actor L. Devrient in 1825. So it is by no means the case that limonade a l’Angloise was made with sparkling wine, but rather with a wine of the Canary Islands, as described by Jean-Baptiste Labat in French. It also appears, which the dictionary does not mention, that the English ‘sack’ can certainly be considered the origin of the German ‘Sekt’ – at least that is how it was seen in 1742, because what else should ‘Canarien-Sect’ mean other than ‘Canary sack’?
Denis Diderot, 1765
In the Encyklopaedie published by Denis Diderot in 1765, there is again what Jean-Baptiste Labat told us: “SANG-GRIS , … this is the name given by the French in America to a drink invented by the English and very fashionable in the French West Indies. This drink is made of Madeira wine, sugar, lemon juice, a little cinnamon, nutmeg, and a toasted crust of bread; the liquor is passed through a fine cloth, and is one of the most pleasant liquors to drink. (D. J.)”
– “SANG-GRIS , …c’est ainsi que les François nomment en Amérique, une boisson que les Anglois ont inventée, & qui est fort à la mode aux îles Antilles françoises. Cette boisson se fait avec du vin de Madere, du sucre, du jus de citron, un peu de cannelle, de muscade, & une croûte de pain rôtie; on passé cette liqueur par un linge fin, & elle est une des plus agréables à boire. (D.J.)“
Martin Euler, 1790
Martin Euler confirmed in 1790: “SANG-gris, a strong drink, made of wine of Madera, sugar, lemon juice, a little clove and cinnamon, a pleasant and very common drink in the islands in America; may not be very unlike our hypocras.”
– “SANG-gris, ein starkes Getränk, gemacht aus Wein von Madera, Zuker, Citronensaft, ein wenig Nägelein und Zimmet, ein angenehmes und in den Inseln in Amerika sehr übliches Getränk; mag unserm Hypokras nicht sehr ungleich seyn.“
Ökonomisch-technologischen Encyclopädie, 1800
The Ökonomisch-technologische Encyclopädie, founded by Johann Georg Krünitz, also describes Sanggris and English lemonade: “As far as the so-called English lemonade is concerned, it is prepared in the same way as the Sanggris, except that Canary Sekt is added to the lemonade and Madera wine to the Sanggris. Amber essence is also added, which is left out of the Sanggris. It has a pleasant taste, but is not very healthy. A large quantity of it is used in the French and English islands in America. The rest of it is found in Art. Sanggris.”
– »Was insonderheit noch die so genannte englische Limonade, fr. Limonade à l’ Engloise betrifft, so wird sie wie der Sanggris zubereitet, außer daß zur Limonade Canarien=Sect, und zum Sanggris Wein von Madera kommt. Man thut auch Amber=Essenz hinein, die im Sanggris wegbleibt. Sie ist zwar angenehm von Geschmack, aber nicht sehr gesund. Man verthut davon eine große Menge in den französischen und englischen Inseln in Amerika. Das übrige davon wird im Art. Sanggris vorkommen.«
“Sanggris, a very strong drink, much of which is consumed in the French Isles of America, whither it was brought from the English Isles of America. It is made of madera, with sugar, citron juice, a little cinnamon, cloves, a great deal of nutmeg, and a much-roasted crust of bread, in a dish of crystalline or imitation porcelain, in which it is left until it has taken on the flavour of the ingredients mixed with it, and then strained through fine linen. This drink, which, as appears from its preparation, is an imitation of the English punch, is very agreeable in taste, and the English consider it cooling, which, however, is difficult to understand, as all the spices which are taken with it are very hot; but this much is certain, that it goes very much to the head.”
– “Sanggris, ein sehr starkes Getränk, von dem vieles in den Französischen Inseln von Amerika verbraucht wird, wohin es aus den Englischen Inseln von Amerika gebracht worden ist. Es wird aus Madera, mit Zucker, Citronensaft, etwas Zimmt, Gewürznelken, vieler Muskatennuß und einer stark gerösteten Brodrinde in einer Schale von Krystall oder unächtem Porzellan gemacht, indem es darin so lange stehen bleibt, bis es den Geschmack der darunter gemischten Ingredienzien angenommen hat, dann wird es durch feine Leinwand geseihet. Dieses Getränk, welches, wie aus der Bereitung hervorgeht, eine Nachahmung des Englischen Punsches ist, ist sehr angenehm von Geschmack, und die Engländer halten es für kühlend, welches jedoch schwer zu begreifen ist, da alle Spezereien, die dazu genommen werden, sehr hitzig sind; soviel ist jedoch gewiß, daß es sehr in den Kopf steigt.“
A letter to the editor written in St Lucia in December 1850 and published in ‘Notes and Queries’ raises the question of the origin of the name: “Sangaree. – Your periodical having been the means of eliciting some interesting particulars respecting the origin of the word grog, perhaps you will allow me to claim a similar distinction for the word sangaree. You are aware that this word is applied, in the West Indies, to a beverage composed of Madeira wine, syrup, water, and nutmeg. The French call it sangris, in allusion, it is supposed, to the colour of the beverage, which when mixed has the appearance, as it were, of grey blood (sang gris): but as there is reason to believe that the English were the first to introduce the use of the thing, they having been the first to introduce its principal ingredient, Madeira wine, I am disposed to look upon sangaree as the original word, and sangris as nothing more than a corruption of it. Can any of your readers (among whom I trust there are many retired West India planters) give the etymology of this word? Henry H. Breen. St Lucia, Dec. 1850.”
This letter to the editor was answered by another reader: “Sangaree (Vol. iii., p. 141.). – I take it that the word ought to be spelled sansgris, being derived from the French words sans, without, and gris, tipsy, meaning a beverage that would not make tipsy. I have been a good deal in the French island of Martinique, and they use the term frequently in this sense as applied to a beverage made of white wine (“Vin de Grave”), syrup, water, and nutmeg, with a small piece of fresh lime-skin hanging over the edge of the glass. A native of Martinique gave me this as the derivation of the word. The beverage ought not to be stirred after the nutmeg is put in it, as the fastidious say it would spoil the flavour. T.B.”
That is finally a plausible explanation. One might object that it is unlikely that the English would have taken a name for one of their drinks from the French. But this is exactly what they did for punch, they took the name from Indian, as we have explained. We must remember that according to ancient sources, sanggris was a common drink in the Caribbean islands. There, people were in direct contact with the French islands. It is therefore quite possible that the English took over the ‘sans gris’ and that it became first ‘sanggris’ and then ‘sangaree’. The name must have originated in the Caribbean, otherwise the sangaree would not have passed in London in 1736 as an ‘invention’ of Mr. Gordon.
The explanation as a ‘non tipsy drink’ is more credible than the explanation as ‘grey blood’. Why should it be a ‘grey blood’? The term ‘sack’ was used to describe a white wine, and on Martinique the drink was also prepared with white wine, as the letter to the editor of 1853 proves. This eliminates the possible association of red wine with blood. And why on earth should any term from the British horse trade have been the godfather, as the Oxford Companion suggests? We hardly believe that the Caribbean islands were famous for their horse trade. Even though in French ‘sang’ means blood, ‘sans’ is pronounced without the ‘s’ at the end, and why would the English not have adopted it as ‘sang’ in their language. When Jean-Baptiste Labat visited the Caribbean in 1694, the spelling sang-gris or sanggris had already become established, so that he in turn adopted this spelling from the English. This is how we explain it to ourselves.
David Wondrich brings it to the point in the Oxford Companion: “But Arthur was never a particularly meticulous researcher, and the book is riddled with easily avoidable errors. Worse, he was prone not only to jumping to comclusions and printing supposition as fact but also to altering the evidence to support his conclusion … .«
We’d like to conclude this post with a short excursion to a related beverage category of yesteryear: the Cooler. When browsing through old books, one comes across it again and again, and it is not clear what a Cooler is actually supposed to be. We haven’t put it through its paces, but a newspaper article from 1873 brings clarification here and also explains why the Cooler is hard to grasp, as there are many differences between the individual members of the category, sometimes reminiscent of a Sour, sometimes of a Cocktail. It says: “Some prefer to drink a sour or a cocktail from the ice, without having it strained out into a small glass, and then it is called a ‘cooler.’”
… Nevertheless, lemonade was already known in Europe early on. Anistatia Miller reports that in 16th century France, people drank sweetened lemon juice with water as refreshment. A true innovation was to make such lemonade with sparkling soda water. This happened in Paris in the summer of 1630, making lemonade even more popular, and in 1676 a trade guild called the ‘Compagnie de Limonadiers’ was formed by lemonade sellers.
An article in the Churpfalzbaierisches Intelligenzblatt from 1785 also describes how to make lemonade powder: “XII. Preparation of lemonade powder. The lemonade powder is a medicinal remedy very well known by name, but very many do not know the composition it must have if the drink is to be pleasant and wholesome. Take three quarters of a pound of sugar, with which one grates the yellow of the peel of three to four lemons. Grate this sugar very finely into a bowl and squeeze the juice from the grated lemons onto it. Leave this mixture to dry out in a warm place so that it can be grated into a fine powder. Mix half a pound of Weinsteinrahm into this powder. About two lots or more of this powder can be mixed into the water every day, according to the taste of each person. This lemonade is a marvellous drink in hot days, when there is a violent flush of the blood, and in the most severe fevers it is immensely refreshing; at the same time it mildly expels the urine and promotes the opening of the body. Another kind of lemonade powder, which merely cools without opening, is the following. Mix two and a half ounces of oil sugar, which is obtained by grating the sugar from the yellow of the lemons, and two scruples of potassium hydrogenoxalate, and put so many tablespoons of it into a glass of water that it has a pleasant taste. This lemonade tastes almost more pleasant than the first. In some pharmacies the lemonade powder is prepared in the following, but faulty way. One takes 8 lots of oil sugar as described above, two quarts of saltpetre, and four scruples of tartar salt. This method of preparation is quite wrong. For what is the purpose of the tartar salt in the lemonade powder? Of the 2 drachms of saltpetre it would not possess too much cooling power. It is to be believed that the apothecary was given a prescription for the lemonade powder, in which the essential tartaric acid Sal acidum essenciale Tartari was prescribed instead of the potassium hydrogenoxalate. The pharmacist, however, considered the acidic tartaric salt and the alkaline salt to be one and the same; this error was due to a lack of chemical knowledge, and it is to be regretted that this error has crept into many a pharmacy. May it be improved by this rebuke!”
– “XII. Bereitungsmittel des Limonadspulver. Das Limonadpulver ist ein dem Namen nach sehr bekanntes Arzneymittel, aber sehr viele wissen die Zusammensetzung nicht, die es haben muß, wenn das Getränk angenehm und heilsam seyn soll. Man nimmt drey Viertel Pfund Zucker, womit man von drey bis vier Zitronen das Gelbe der Schale abreibt. Diesen Zucker reibt man auf einer Reibe ganz fein in eine Schüssel, und drücket darauf den Saft, von den abgeriebenen Zitronen, läßt diese Masse an einem warmen Offen so trocken werden, daß man sie zu einem feinen Pulver reiben kann. Unter diesem mischt man ein halbes Pfund Weinsteinrahm. Von diesem Pulver kann man täglich etwa zwey Loth oder mehr unter das Wasser mischen, so wie jeder nach seinem Geschmacke es gut findet. Diese Limonade ist ein herrlicher Trank in heissen Tagen bey heftigen Wallungen des Blutes, und in den Mehresten Fiebern ungemein erquickend; es treibt zugleich gelinde den Urin ab, und befördert die Leibesöfnung. Eine andere Art Limonadenpulver, das nur bloß kühlt, ohne mehrere Oefnung zu machen, ist folgendes. Man mischt zwey und eine halbe Unze Oelzucker, der durch Abreiben des Zuckers von dem Gelben der Zitronen erhalten wird, und zwey Skrupel Sauerkleesalz untereinander, und thut davon so viel Theelöffel voll in ein Glas Wasser, daß es einem angenehmen Geschmack erhält. Diese Limonade schmeckt beynahe lieblicher, als die erste. In einigen Apotheken wird das Limonadepulver auf folgende, aber fehlerhafte Art zubereitet. Man nimmt 8 Loth auf oben beschriebene Weise Oelzucker, Zwey Quentchen Salpeter, und vier Skrupel Weinsteinsalz. Diese Bereitungsart ist ganz falsch. Denn, was soll das Weinsteinsalt im Limonadenpulver? Von denen 2 Quentchen Salpeter würde es nicht gar zu viel kühlende Kräfte besitzen. Es ist wohl zu glauben, daß man dem Apotheker eine Vorschrift zum Limonadepulver gab, worinn statt des Sauerkleesalzes die wesentliche Weinsteinsäure Sal acidum essenciale Tartari vorgeschrieben war. Der Apotheker hielt aber das saure Weinsteinsalz und das laugenhafte für eins, dieser Fehler entstand aus Mangel chemischer Kenntnisse, und es ist zu bedauern, daß sich dieser Fehler in manche Apotheke eingeschlichen hat. Möchte er doch durch diese Zurechtweisung verbessert werden!“
Weinsteinrahm is also called: Kaliumhydrogentartat, Kalium bitartaricum, Tartarus depuratus, Kalium tartaricum acidum, or Kaliumbitartrat. It is the monopotassium salt of tartaric acid and occurs together with calcium tartrate in tartar. It is used, among other things, as an acidifier in leavening agents, as a cleaning agent and in food technology. However, the recipe described here is not yet an effervescent powder. The addition of sodium bicarbonate is missing. If you add a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and tartaric acid or citric acid to water, the sodium bicarbonate and acid react with each other. Sodium tartrate or sodium citrate and carbonic acid are formed. These break down into water and carbon dioxide, causing the drink to start bubbling.
Lemonade powder was used in a variety of ways. The “Gnädigstprivilegirtes Leipziger Intelligenzblatt” reported in 1770: “The lemonade powder of the Electoral Saxon Poorhouse at Waldheim, which, a tablespoonful added to a glass of fresh water, is, after some stirring, the best lemonade to drink for cooling and refreshment, therefore very convenient when travelling, also in malo hypochondriaco for the relief of flatulence, likewise in hot river and other fevers for the quenching of violent thirst, furthermore in case of existing agitation and fright, also useful after much wine-drinking as the best remedy. In the absence of fresh lemons, it can also be used in the kitchen instead of lemons in dishes and in broths. It can be obtained under its special seal, genuinely and honestly: in the electoral poorhouse at Waldheim itself; in Leipzig, in the graciously privileged Intelligenz-Comtoir; in Dresden, in the poorhouse main cash department, with Mr. Copist Fickern; in Mitweyda, with the electoral poorhouse apothecary, Mr. Schubarth; … [numerous other sources of supply follow] … also elsewhere in various large places in Germany. The tin rifle à 4 Loth for 6 gr. electoral Saxon convention coin, and in Louisd’or à 5 Thlr.”
– “Des churfürstlich-sächs. Armenhauses zu Waldheim Limonadenpulver, welches, ein Theelöffel voll in ein Glas frisches Wasser eingethan, nach einigem Umrühren als die beste Limonade zur Kühlung und Erquickung zu trinken, mithin auf Reisen sehr bequem, auch in malo hypochondriaco zu Abführung der Blähungen, desgl. in hitzigen Fluß- und andern Fiebern zu Stillung des heftigen Durstes, ferner bey gehabtem Aergerniß und Schrecken, auch nach vielem Weintrinken, als das beste niederschlagende Mittel, dienstlich ist. Auch kann solche, bey Ermangelung frischer Citronen, in der Küche statt derselben an die Speisen und zu Brühen nützlich gebrauchet werden. Es ist unter seinem besonderen Siegel ächt und aufrichtig zu haben: in dem churfürstlichen Armenhause zu Waldheim selbsten; in Leipzig, in dem gnädigst priviligirten Intelligenz-Comtoir; in Dresden, in der Armenhaushauptcassenexpedition, bey dem Herrn Copist Fickern; in Mitweyda, bey dem churfürstl. Armenhausapotheker, Herrn Schubarthen; … [es folgen zahlreiche andere Bezugsquellen] … auch sonsten an verschiedenen großen Orten Deutschlands. Die blecherne Büchse à 4 Loth vor 6 gr. Churfürstl. Sächs. Conventionsmünze, und in Louisd’or à 5 Thlr.“
In the previous post in this series we mentioned that, according to Anistatia Miller, soda water had been used to make lemonade in Paris in 1630 and that this made lemonade even more popular. We wonder now what to make of such popularity, for none of the French lemonade recipes we have quoted here calls for soda water, not even that of the royal valet Nicolas de Bonnefons and that of François-Pierre de La Varenne, the most important French chef of the 17th century. Shouldn’t one expect that these two should at least mention soda water?