Now that we have a better understanding of West African beliefs, let us turn to an important creature: It is the crocodile. Why this is so important, we would like to explain to you in this part of the series.
Bumbo, Negro Devil
In 1747, the fourth volume of “Voyages and Travels: consisting Of the most Esteemed Relations, which have been hithero published in any Language” was published. In the index there is an entry that is the key for us to understand the etymological relations of Kill Devil and Rum. There it is written: “Bumbo, Negro Devil ii.183 c“. [24-INDEX]
This is an extraordinarily important finding, the significance of which will gradually become apparent in the following explanations. If we want to understand the etymology of Kill Devil and Rum, we must understand what this “Negro Devil” is all about. In the second volume referred to, unfortunately, there is nothing more about a devil, but only that the natives called the crocodiles of the river Gambia “Bumbo”. It is noted in a marginal note that the story dates from 1621. [25-183] The report states: “THE Crocodiles, called, by the Natives, Bumbo, abound in the Gambra. The Negros are so much afraid of them, that they dare not wash their Hands in the River, much less offer to fsim or wade in it, having many lamentable Stories of their Friends being devoured by them; and in passing their Cattle across, (which they have often Occasion for) they take the Opportunity of low Water; when five or six getting into a small Canoa, the Ox is led into the Water with a Rope tied to his Horns, whereby one holds him close to the Boat, being affifted by another who hauls by the Tail, while a Marbût stands over his Back, praying and spitting upon him, to charm the Crocodile; and, lest this should fail, a fourth has his Bow ready charged and drawn to shoot him at his first Approach.« [25-183]
The text refers to the author Richard Jobson and his book ‘The Golden Trade: OR, A discovery of the River Gambra, and the Golden Trade of the Aethiopians’ published in 1623. For the interested reader we quote the original here: “There is abounding in this River, who are bred and live therein, two sorts especiall, as I may terme them monstrous, the one devouring, as the people report, and the other daungerous, as I have found: The devouring is the Crocodile or Alegatha, because they carry one, and the same resemblance, but doubtlesse, I am perswaded, there is no other Crocodil, but such as wee have seene in this River, whom the people cal by the name of Bumbo, sundry times when we have driven them from the shore, where theyhave beene lying in the morning, or otherwise forth of the water, when wee have observed the print they leave behind them, upon the soft sand, we have found by measure of rule, his whole length, from the point of his nose, to the end of his tayle, containe thirty three foote; The people of the Country, stand in such dread of these, that they dare not wash their hands in the great River, much lesse, offer to swimme, or wade therein, reporting unto us many lamentable stories, how many of their friends, and acquaintance have beene devoured by them: neither do they at any time bring any of their Cattle, to passe the River, as within ebbing, and flowing, they have diverse occasions to doe, but with great dread, and ceremony: for at all townes within that compasse, they have small boats, which we call Canoos, to ferry over withall, which cannot receive a live beefe, onely some five or sixe of the people: but when they passe a beefe over, he is led into the water, with a rope to his hornes, whereby one holds him close to the boate, and another taking up his tayle, holds in the like manner; the Priest, or Mary-bucke, stands over the middle of the beast, praying and spitting upon him, according to their ceremonies, charming the Crocodile, and another againe by him, with his bow and arrowes ready drawne, to expect when the Crocodile will ceaze, and in this manner, if there be twenty at a time, the[y] passe them one after another, never thinking them safe, untill they be on the toppe of the River bancke:” 
What we can deduce from what has been presented before is this: The crocodile is obviously inhabited by a spirit being, which must be appeased so that it does no evil; the text says that the ox, which is driven through the river, is spat upon by a priest in order to appease the crocodile. All that has been said so far suggests that the ox was spat upon with palm wine, the sacred liquid, to appease the evil spirits. Since there was no need to offer sacrifices to the ‘good beings’ to appease them, the Europeans of times past interpreted these sacrifices – even to the crocodile – as devil worship. Against this background it becomes understandable why the crocodile was called “devil of the negroes”.
After this find, our curiosity was aroused. Isn’t there also a mixed drink called Bumbo? Could there perhaps be a connection here? So now follow us further on our journey of discovery that will answer this question.
Let’s continue to look at the travel report. One enlightens us there also about the language: “The Languages of the Blacks within this Division of Africa are but little known … However that be, the same Author tells us, the most general Language along the Gambra, is the Mandingo, and that whoever can speak this may travel from the River’s Mouth up to the Country of the Jonkos, or Merchants, (so called from their buying a vast Number of Slaves there) which is reported to be six Weeks Journey from James-Fort.” [25-289] The river Gambra is the Gambia. 
The travelogue contains a Mandingo dictionary. Listed therein is: “A Corocodile, or Allegator, bumbo” [25-297]
In a book published in 1738, Francis Moore also reports that crocodiles are called Bumbo in the West African language Mandinka, a branch of the Niger-Congo languages.  He writes to January 3, 1724 on the occasion of a trip up the Gambia River about the confluence of the river Damasensa: “This Person is a Frenchman, and a private trader, and the only European that lives here, nor are there twenty Houses in the Place. It is near five Miles up the River, which at the Entrance may be fifty Yards over, but grows so narrow at last, by reason of the Mangrove Trees, as not to leave room to row. It is full of Alligators, which the Mundigoes call Bumbo.” [1-251]
In a book published in 1747, Damasensa is found located east of “Elephant Island” on a map. [17-272]
Bambotus – The river of crocodiles
‘Bumbo’ must be an already very old word. In 1800 James Rennell writes in his book comparing geographical data of Herodotus and other ancient authors with modern geography: “Can we doubt then, the truth of the representations of the Senegal and Gambia rivers, in Ptolemy; … Or the notices concerning the river Gambia (Bambotus) in Pliny?” [29-673]
He was intrigued by Joseph Banks’ note, made while traveling in the Gambia, that ‘Bumbo’ was the Mandigo word for ‘crocodile’. He then wrote to him in a letter dated January 25, 1806: “Pliny calls the Gambia R. Bambotus & says that it abounds with Crocodiles, ie the River of Crocodiles? Gambia, it seems, (or something like it) was the name of the Country.” [27-225]
This does not prove that Pliny’s Bambotus is identical with the Gambia. It is generally believed that he used it to refer to Senegal, which is located further north. It is commonly stated that the ancient name Bambotus derives from the Phoenician-Hebrew name “behemoth” for the hippopotamus.  However, this seems to us to be a little bit far-fetched. We would rather agree with James Rennell in his etymological consideration, especially since Behemoth does not sound as much like Bambotus as Bumbo; for once one leaves out the Latinizing ending -tus in Bambotus, Bambo remains. This seems to us a far more conclusive derivation. Especially since Manding is still spoken today in Senegal.  This may also be an indication that the words Bumbo and Bambotus have the same origin and refer to the crocodile.
Also other ancient authors know the Bambotus: “The last river that Polybius names is the Bambotus, probably the present Nun. If one takes namely from the Anatis d.i. from the Ommiragih to 485 millien, equal to 128 1/2 miles, or perhaps more correctly according to the reading that Solinus (c. 24) and Martianus Kapella (de nuptiis Philolog. lib. VI p. 215. 216) found in Pliny, takes 496 – millien, i.e. 131 1/2 miles, one comes to about two miles to the mouth of the river Nun, where the Atlas begins.” [32-60]
– “Der letzte Fluss, den Polybius nennt, ist der Bambotus, wahrscheinlich der jetzige Nun. Wenn man nehmlich vom Anatis d.i. vom Ommiragih an 485 Millien, gleich 128 1/2 Meile, oder vielleicht richtiger nach der Lesart, die Solinus (c. 24) und Martianus Kapella (de nuptiis Philolog. lib. VI p. 215. 216) im Plinius vorfanden, 496 – Millien, d. i. 131 1/2 Meile nimmt, so kommt man bis auf ungefähr zwei Meilen zur Mündung des Flusses Nun, wo der Atlas anfängt.” [32-60]
Strange about this description is this: the Atlas is in North Africa, not at the mouth of the Niger.
Further back in the work, however, the author writes in the chapter “About the circumnavigation of Africa by Necho“: “Herodotus believed that Africa was flowed around by the sea in the south: because the Phoenicians had sailed around this part of the earth on Egyptian ships; the Atlantic, Indian and Mediterranean seas are one ocean for him; and Xerxes condemned a noble Persian instead of death, to the circumnavigation of Africa, which was therefore considered possible, but perilous.”[32-685] A footnote notes on this: “Gossellin believes that the ancients never got beyond Cape Bojador. But whence then the truth in the account of the Senegal and Gambia in Ptolemy? of the coast along the Serra Leona? the news of the Gambia (Bambotus) in Pliny?” [32-685]
– “Ueber die Umschiffung Afrikas durch Necho«: »Herodot glaubte, dass Afrika im Süden vom Meer umflossen sei: denn die Phönizier hatten auf ägyptischen Schiffen diesen Erdtheil umsegelt; das atlantische, indische und mittelländische Meer sind ihm ein Ocean; und Xerxes verurtheilte einen vornehmen Perser statt zum Tode, zur Umschiffung Afrikas, die man also für möglich, aber für gefahrvoll hielt.” [32-685] “Gossellin glaubt, dass die Alten nie über das Kap Bojador hinausgekommen seien. Woher dann aber die Wahrheit in der Darstellung des Senegal und Gambia bei Ptolemäus? der Küste längst der Serra Leona? die Nachrichten über den Gambia (Bambotus) bei Plinius?” [32-685]
It is not decisive for our consideration which river exactly was named Bambotus by Pliny and other ancient authors. What is important is that the name probably comes from the fact that many crocodiles swam in it, which are called Bumbo in Manding.
Words from the Manding in the Caribbean
The slaves of the Caribbean came from West Africa and brought their languages with them. The term “Bumbo” for the crocodile was also brought to the Caribbean by the West Africans. A report on the history of Jamaica, published in 1774, also discusses the language used there: – »The Africans speak their respective dialects, with some mixture of broken English. The language of the Creoles is bad English, larded with the Guiney dialect, owing to their adopting the African words, in order to make themselves understood by the imported slaves; which they find much easier than teaching these strangers to learn English. The better sort are very fond of improving their language, by catching at any hard word that the Whites happen to let fall in their hearing; and they alter and misapply it in a strange manner; but a tolorable collection of them gives an air of knowledge and importance in the eyes of their brethren, which tickles their vanity, and makes them more assiduous in stocking themselves with this unintelligible jargon. … Many of the plantation Blacks call their children by the African name for the day of the week on which they are born; and these names are of two genders, male and female; … There are some other words, that are remarkable for the different senses in which they are used; viz. … Bumbo, Original Import: Alligator, Common Import: Pudendum muliebre [the female vulva ], Dialect: Mundingo.« [2-426] [2-427]
So Bumbo in Manding is the name for the crocodile. What kind of language is Manding? Manding, also called Mandingue, Mandingo, Mandekan, or Mandé-kan, is a collective name for various dialects in West Africa, and is spoken in Mali, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, parts of Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Senegal.  The text found in Edward Long’s 1774 book ‘The history of Jamaica’ is addressed by Silvia Kouwenberg in her 2012 study of African components in Jamaican vocabulary. In addition to Bumbo, Edward Long also listed ‘Guinnay’ and ‘Guinee’ with the original meaning of ‘devil’, along with the explanation that it was also used to refer to a slave country, and that this term was said to come from the Wolof and Fulfulde dialects. The “slave country” is Guinea. [4-44] Silvia Kouwenberg then goes into more detail about the term ‘bumbo’ and writes that “bómbo” or “bumbo” also means vagina or anus. The Temne, an ethnic group in Sierra Leone, West Africa, understood “a-bombo” to mean vagina. In Bembe and Nyanga, the latter a province of Gabon, “mbombo ~bombo” means anus or ass. In the Congo language, “bombo” denotes wetness and clotted mass. In Mbundu, spoken in Angola, “bombo” means cavity, and in Mbumbu again vulva. [4-246]     We see, then, that the root word has a similar, if not the same, meaning virtually along the entire west coast of Africa, from Guinea to Angola.
In West Africa, the crocodile is a fertility symbol.  This explains why Bumbo can mean both crocodile and vulva.
Before we move on to the Caribbean with our further analysis, we need to dwell on the crocodile for a bit.
As we have already noted, most peoples of Africa believe in a god or goddess. These are often not worshipped directly, as they are considered too sacred to listen to the wishes and prayers of the people. Instead, people pray to minor gods who control the elements, such as wind, fire, or water. These lesser gods are often associated with an animal, including the crocodile. 
But there are also other ideas about the significance of the crocodile: in Sabou, located in Burkina Faso, a legend says that a village chief was once saved from death by a crocodile. Crocodiles are believed to embody the souls of their ancestors, which is why they are sacred. 
Also important to our analysis is the role of the crocodile in voodoo. What is there to report about it?
The Crocodile in Voodoo
The Yoruba are a West African people living mainly in southwestern Nigeria, but also in parts of Benin, Ghana and Togo.  Hans Gerald Hödl, in his lecture on ‘African Religions’, describes one of the Yoruba religious symbols. It is the opon Ifá: “The opon-ifá … symbolizes the world. … The representations on the rim show the autonomous forces of the cosmos in competition with each other. … Opon Ifá are … differently designed, without a fixed iconography. … Men and women, often with pronounced genital areas, and various animals are often depicted. Preference is given to … such animals that symbolize the transition between different realms of existence , such as crocodiles that cross borders. They are, per analogiam, important for the process of divination, communication between humans, òrìşà and spirits … .” [10-85] [10-86]
– “Das opon-ifá … symbolisiert die Welt. … Die Darstellungen am Rand zeigen die autonomen, miteinander im Wettstreit befindlichen Kräfte des Kosmos. … Opon Ifá sind … unterschiedlich gestaltet, ohne festgelegte Ikonographie. … Es werden werden oft Männer und Frauen, oft mit ausgeprägtem Genitalbereich, und verschiedene Tiere dargestellt. Bevorzugt werden … solche Tiere dargestellt, die den Übergang zwischen verschiedenen Bereichen der Existenz symbolisieren, etwa Krokodile, die Grenzen überschreiten. Sie sind, per analogiam, wichtig für den Prozeß der Divination, der Kommunikation zwischen Menschen, òrìşà und Geistern … .” [10-85] [10-86]
Under the heading “The World View of the Fon and Ewe from Dahomey (benin) and Togo and the Vodun Cults,” Hans Gerald Hödl states, “The Fon have a central role in the former kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin. They have a religious tradition, … Called Vodu or Vodun. The word ‘Vodu’ means both the spiritual entities and the cult.” [10-116]
– “Die Weltsicht der Fon und Ewe aus Dahomey (benin) und Togo und die Vodun-Kulte … Die Fon haben eine zentrale Rolle im früheren Königreich Dahomey, im heutigen Benin. Sie haben eine religiöse Tradition, … Vodu oder Vodun genannt. Das Wort ‘Vodu’ bedeutet sowohl die geistigen Wesenheiten als auch den Kult.« [10-116]
In “Cult of Vodu,” [10-121] he writes, “Adzakpa: the spirit of the crocodile. Altars to Adzakpa are crocodile-shaped, made of clay or cement. As an animal that lives in different realms, the crocodile is considered the animal of transition between worlds. In some tales, it is considered the creature that brings the spirits of the dead across the river that separates the world of the dead from the living. Those possessed by Adzakpa move like crocodiles.” [10-124]
– “Kult der Vodu” [10-121] “Adzakpa: der Geist des Krokodils. Altäre für Adzakpa sind krokodilgestaltig, aus Lehm oder Zement angefertigt. Als Tier, das in verschiedenen Bereichen lebt, gilt das Krokodil als Tier des Überganges zwischen den Welten. In manchen Erzählungen gilt es als das Wesen, das die Totengeister über den Fluss bringt, der die Welt der Toten von den Lebenden trennt. Von Adzakpa Besessene bewegen sich wie Krokodile.” [10-124]
This is a very important finding for us, and we want to highlight it: The crocodile lives in different realms, in the water and on the land. It therefore symbolizes the transition between different realms of existence and is thus also considered the animal of transition between this world and the spirit world. It brings the spirits of the dead across the river that separates the two worlds. Therefore, the crocodile is also a medium for contacting the spirit world. In previous chapters we had already shown by examples that the crocodile has an inherent nature that is not fundamentally good. One must appease it so that it does not become evil. One therefore also sacrifices alcohol to it. In religious rituals, the spirit of the crocodile can go into a person, and one can then communicate with the spirit world and the crocodile spirit. People into whom the spirit of the crocodile has entered then move like a crocodile.
Hans Gerald Hödl gives us another important hint: The spirit of the crocodile plays a role in Voodoo. This religion is practiced today not only mainly in Benin, Ghana and Togo, but also in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. There are also followers of the cult in Louisiana. Voodoo came to the Caribbean through the abduction and enslavement of the West African population. 
In voodoo, there were not only altars made of clay and cement in the shape of crocodiles. In Voodoo Museum in Strasbourg, a crocodile is also shown as a river god fetish. We don’t know exactly what the figure is supposed to represent, but the first association was that the crocodile carries a boat containing the spirit of a dead person transported across the river separating the worlds.  
As can be seen in a close-up, there are in fact two people sitting in a boat on the crocodile’s back. 
The museum also displays a crocodile skull made in Togo with its mouth tied shut. This contains for some Voodoosi the power to transport a human being into the hereafter. This may certainly have something to do with the fact that in West Africa people are often attacked by crocodiles.   
Mami Wata, a sea goddess or sea spirit, also plays a role in voodoo. [10-121] ‘Mami Wata’ is a term from Pidgin English meaning ‘Mother of Water’. She is worshipped in West, South and Central Africa and also in the Caribbean. Some believe Mami Watá originated in Latin America and is a variation of the Watur-Mama cult. The latter is documented as early as 1750 in the then Dutch colony of Surinam and was practiced by African slaves. The cult acts included possession dances and sacrificial rituals. On the other hand, ethnologists point to the local African origins of water deities found almost everywhere between Senegal and Nigeria. The mermaid-like figure of Mami Watas, it is also believed, may have its origins in the African manatee that lives primarily in estuaries of rivers, in mangrove areas, and also in the rivers, reaching far inland, up to 2000 kilometers from the coast. Thus, it must be assumed that the origin of Mami Watas is in Africa.   Among the companions of Mami Watas is also the crocodile. 
Sobek, the Egyptian crocodile god
When one thinks of the religious role of the crocodile in West Africa, does it not occur to one that the crocodile also had religious significance in Egypt? Sobek, as the crocodile god was called there, was worshipped in Egyptian mythology as the ruler over water and as a fertility god. In the New Kingdom Sobek was also often mentioned in underworld books.  So was the crocodile also something like a mediator between the worlds for the Egyptians? Just as “Bumbo” lives in the water as a mediator between the worlds and stands for fertility? Is this only coincidental, or is there perhaps a connection between the Egyptian Sobek and the West African Bumbo?
Herodotus wrote in the 5th century B.C. that crocodiles were sacred to part of the Egyptians. About the inhabitants of Thebes and Al-Fayyūms he reports: “Every household raises a tamed crocodile. They hang jewelry of glass stones and gold on its ears, put bracelets on its forefeet, give it special food and offerings and the best treatment as long as they are alive. After they die, they have them embalmed and buried in sacred coffins. The people of Elephantine, however [near present-day Aswan], do not consider them sacred. They even eat them.” These differences in veneration are not very understandable at first, but probably the reason is a very simple one.  As DNA analyses from 2011 showed, in ancient Egypt there was not only the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), which still lives there today, but also the West African crocodile (Crocodylus suchus), which is no longer native to the Nile. Both species are not closely related to each other, even though they hardly differ in appearance. In fact, the Nile crocodile is more closely related to the four Central and South American Crocodylus species (Morelet’s crocodile, Cuban crocodile, Orinoco crocodile, and American crocodile) than it is to the West African crocodile. The Nile crocodile is significantly more aggressive than the West African crocodile. Probably for this reason, genetic analyses show that apparently only the much tamer West African Crocodile was mummified and thus revered.   
In the next post in this series, we look at Caribbean drinking habits, Caribbean religious traditions, and the importance that alcohol played in these.
- https://archive.org/details/travelsintoinlan00moor/page/232/mode/2up?q=bumbo Francis Moore: Travels into the inland parts of Africa: containing a Description of the Several Nations for the space of Six Hundred Miles up the River Gambia; their Trade, Habits, Customs, Language, Manners, Religion and Government; the Power, Disposition and Characters of some Negro Princes; with a particular Account of Job Ben Solomon, a Pholey, who was in England in the Year 1733, and known by the Name of the African. To which is added, Capt. Stibbs’s Voyage up the Gambia in the Year 1723, to make Discoveries; with An Accurate Map of that River taken on the Spot: And many other Copper Plates. Also extracts from the Nubian’s Geography, Leo the African, and other Authors antient and modern, concerning the Niger, Nile, or Gambia, and Observations thereon. London, 1738.
- https://archive.org/details/historyjamaicao01longgoog/page/n456/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus (Edward Long): The history of Jamaica or, general survey of the antient and modern state of the island: with reflections on its situation, settlements, inhabitants, climate, products, commerce, laws, and government. In three volumes. Vol. 2. London, 1774.
- https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pudendum_muliebre Pudendum muliebre.
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233991734_THE_AFRICAN_LEXIS_IN_JAMAICAN_ITS_LINGUISTIC_AND_SOCIOHISTORICAL_SIGNIFICANCE Silvia Kouwenberg: The African lexis in Jamaican: Its linguistic and sociohistorical significance. January 2012.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temne Temne.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyanga Nyanga.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongo_language Kongo language.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mbundu Mbundu.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruchtbarkeitssymbol Fruchtbarkeitssymbol.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20190226135745/https://homepage.univie.ac.at/hans.hoedl/ATRWS07.pdf Hans Gerald Hödl: Afrikanische Religionen. Einführung. Universität Wien, Institut für Religionswissenschaft. Wintersemester 2007. ->
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_(Ethnie) Yoruba (Ethnie).
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mami_Wata Mami Wata.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikanischer_Manati Afrikanischer Manati.
- http://www.glaube-und-irrglaube.de/texte/mami-wata-pantheon.pdf Gabriele Lademann-Priemer: Mami Wata – ein Pantheon.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voodoo Voodoo.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandinka_(Sprache) Mandinka (Sprache).
- https://books.google.de/books?id=56bfwhFz2-oC&pg=PA480&lpg=PA480&dq=%22kaart+van+de+ommelanden%22&source=bl&ots=J9DwdXA3d2&sig=ACfU3U1tXXDqXvYh2V-QaiSiDZysM7Zu7g&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwid_eycx_XqAhWKNOwKHac0CHkQ6AEwEHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=kaart%20van%20de%20ommelanden&f=false Antoine François Prévost: HISTOIRE GÉNÉRALE DES VOYAGES, OU NOUVELLE COLLECTION DE TOUTES LES RELATIONS DE VOYAGES PAR MER ET PAR TERRE, QUI ONT ÉTÉ PUBLIÉES JUSQU’À PRÉSENT DANS LES DIFFÉRENTES LANGUES DE TOUTES LES NATIONS CONNUES: CONTENANT Ce qu’il y a de plus remarquable, de plus utile, [et] de mieux avéré, dans les Pays où les Voyageurs ont pénétré, Touchant leur Situation, leur Etendue, leurs Limites, leurs Divisions, leur Climat, leur Terroir, leurs Productions, leurs Lacs, leurs Rivières, leurs Montagnes, leurs Mines, leurs Citez & leurs principales Villes, leurs Ports, leurs Rades, leurs Edifices, &c. AVEC LES MOEURS ET LES USAGES DES HABITANS, LEUR RELIGION, LEUR GOUVERNEMENT, LEURS ARTS ET LEURS SCIENCES, LEUR COMMERCE ET LEURS MANUFACTURES; POUR FORMER UN SYSTÊME COMPLET D’HISTOIRE ET DE GEOGRAPHIE MODERNE, QUI REPRESENTERA L’ÈTAT ACTUEL DE TOUTES LES NATIONS: ENRICHIE DE CARTES GÉOGRAPHIQUES Nouvellement composées sur les Observations les plus autentiques; DE PLANS ET DE PERSPECTIVES; DE FIGURES D’ANIMAUX, DE VÉGÉTAUX, HABITS, ANTIQUITEZ, &c. NOUVELLE ÉDITION, volume 3. 1747.
- https://westafrika.de/?ngp=w7e3a0c1439135c81508525656642571 Die heiligen Krokodile von Sabou.
- https://www.afrika-junior.de/inhalt/wissen/glaube-goetter-ahnen-und-taenze/welchen-gott-verehren-die-afrikanischen-voelker.html Welchen Gott verehren die afrikanischen Völker?
- https://www.michael-mueller-verlag.de/de/reiseportal/reisereportagen/abseits_der_routen_strassburg.html Abseits der Routen, Teil 15: Straßburg oder die magische Welt des Voodoo.
- https://www.sr.de/sr/sr3/sr_3_aktionen/tour_de_kultur/voodoo_museum_strassburg110.html Patrick Wiermer: Im Kontakt mit den Toten. Das Voodoo Museum in Straßburg.
- https://archive.org/details/gri_allgemeinehi03leip/page/n245/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande; oder Sammlung aller Reisebeschreibungen, welche bis itzo in verschiedenen Sprachen von allen Völkern herausgegeben worden, und einen vollständigen Begriff von den neueren Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte machen; Worinnen der wirkliche Zustand aller nationen vorgestellet, und das merkwürdigste, Nützlichste und Wahrhaftigste in Europa, Asia, Africa und America, in Ansehung ihrer verschiedenen Reiche und Länder; deren Lage, Größe, Gränzen, Eintheilungen, Himmelsgegenden, Erdreichs, Früchte, Thiere, Flüsse, Seen, Gebirge, großen und kleinen Städte, Häfen, Gebäude, u.s.w. wie auch der Sitten und Gebräuche der Einwohner, ihrer Religion, Regierungsart, Künste und Wissenschaften, Handlung und Manufacturen, enthalten ist; Mit nöthigen Landkarten nach den neuesten und richtigsten astronomischen Wahrnehmungen, und mancherley Abbildungen der Städte, Küsten, Aussichten, Thiere, Gewächse, Kleidungen, und anderer dergleichen Merkwürdigkeiten, versehen; Durch eine Gesellschaft gelehrter Männer im Englischen zusammen getragen, und aus demselben ins Deutsche übersetzt. Dritter Band. Leipzig, 1748.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambia Gambia.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=Xu5aAAAAcAAJ&pg=PT6&dq=%22bumbo%22+%22benin%22&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjkmP3Tu7rqAhXDzqQKHawFAZUQ6AEwAXoECAEQAg#v=onepage&q=%22bumbo%22&f=false Anonymus: Voyages and Travels: consisting Of the most Esteemed Relations, which have been hithero published in any Language: Comprehending every Thing remarkable in its Kind, in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, With respect to the Several Empires, Kingdoms, and Provinces; their Situation, Extent, Bounds and Division, Climate, Soil and Produce; their Lakes, Rivers, Mountains, Cities, principal Towns, Harbours, Buildings, &c. and the gradual Alterations that from Time to Time have happened in each: Also the Manners and Customs of the Several Inhabitants; their Religion and Government, Arts and Sciences, Trades and Manufactures: Sa as to form A Compleat System of Modern Geography and History, exhibiting the Present State of all Nations; Illustrated not only with Charts of the several Divisions of the Ocean, and Maps of each Country, entirely new Composed, as well as new Engraved, by the best Hands, from the latest Surveys, Discoveries, and Astronomical Observations: But likewise with variety of Plans, and Prospects of Coasts, Harbours, and Cities; besides Cuts representing Antiquities, Animals, Vegetables, the Persons and Habits of the People, and other Curiosities: Selected from the most Authentic Travellers, Foreign as well as English. Vol. IV. London, 1747.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=Nu5aAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=Bumbo&f=false Anonymus: Voyages and Travels: consisting Of the most Esteemed Relations, which have been hithero published in any Language: Comprehending every Thing remarkable in its Kind, in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, With respect to the Several Empires, Kingdoms, and Provinces; their Situation, Extent, Bounds and Division, Climate, Soil and Produce; their Lakes, Rivers, Mountains, Cities, principal Towns, Harbours, Buildings, &c. and the gradual Alterations that from Time to Time have happened in each: Also the Manners and Customs of the Several Inhabitants; their Religion and Government, Arts and Sciences, Trades and Manufactures: Sa as to form A Compleat System of Modern Geography and History, exhibiting the Present State of all Nations; Illustrated not only with Charts of the several Divisions of the Ocean, and Maps of each Country, entirely new Composed, as well as new Engraved, by the best Hands, from the latest Surveys, Discoveries, and Astronomical Observations: But likewise with variety of Plans, and Prospects of Coasts, Harbours, and Cities; besides Cuts representing Antiquities, Animals, Vegetables, the Persons and Habits of the People, and other Curiosities: Selected from the most Authentic Travellers, Foreign as well as English. Vol. II. London, 1745.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manding_(Sprache) Manding (Sprache).
- https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjHgMTAi-7qAhWILewKHQSpDfIQFjAJegQIAhAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.stir.ac.uk%2Fbitstream%2F1893%2F25821%2F1%2FThesis%2520Final.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1OXkphdTU3ZKMvbrkQzab9 Sven Daniel Outram-Leman: The nature of British Mapping of West Africa, 1749-1841. University of Stirling, Submitted 1st May 2017.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegal_(Fluss) Senegal (Fluss).
- https://archive.org/details/geographicalsys00renn/page/n717/mode/2up?q=bambotus James Rennell: The geographical system of Herodotus, examined; and explained, by a comparison with those of other ancient authors, and with modern geography. In the course of the work are introduced, dissertations on the itinerary stade of the Greeks, the expedition of Darius Hystaspes to Scythia, the position and remains of ancient Babylon, the alluvions of the Nile, and Canals of Suez; The oasis and temple of Jupiter Ammon, the ancient circumnavigation of Africa, and other subjects of history and geography. London, 1800.
- https://archive.org/details/dienatugeschicht03plin/page/n361/mode/2up?q=bambotus Die Naturgeschichte des Cajus Plinius Secundus. Ins Deutsche übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von Prof. Dr. G. C. Wittstein. Erster Band. (I. – VI. Buch). Leipzig, 1881.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nun_(Fluss) Nun (Fluss).
- https://books.google.de/books?id=k5xCAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=plinius+bambotus&source=bl&ots=zpoejnuRJY&sig=ACfU3U1Hj71IV87nCQwm2lc6dgsmuq5CNg&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwivv-GAj-7qAhWMiqQKHc4gC9s4ChDoATAIegQICxAB#v=onepage&q=plinius%20bambotus&f=false G. G. Bredow: Gossellin über die Kenntniss der Alten von der West- und Ostküste Afrikas, und über die Umschiffung dieses Erdtheils; Rennels System der Geographie herodots; Vincent über den Handelsverkehr der Alten mit Indien, und über ihre Kenntniss von der Ostküste Afrikas: im Auszuge übersetzt, und durch Anmerkungen und eigene Untersuchungen berichtiget und erweitert. Altona, 1802.
- https://penelope.uchicago.edu/jobson/jobson2.html#crocodile Richard Jobson: The Golden Trade: or, a discovery of the river Gambra, and the golden trade of the Aethiopians. Set downe as they were collected in travelling, part of the yeares, 1620, and 1621. (Ausgabe von 1623).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mus%C3%A9e_Vodou_collection_Arbogast_Strasbourg_mai_2014-08.jpg Ein Krokodil als Flussgottfetisch (© Claude Truong-Ngoc / Wikimedia Commons).
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vodou_crocodile_Atchakpa-Mus%C3%A9e_Vodou.jpg Vodou-Krokodil Atchakpa (Togo).
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:La_tombe_de_Sethi_1er_(KV.17)_(Vall%C3%A9e_des_Rois,_Th%C3%A8bes_ouest)_-9.jpg?uselang=de Sobek.
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mus%C3%A9e_Vodou_collection_Arbogast_Strasbourg_mai_2014-07.jpg Ein Krokodil als Flussgottfetisch (© Claude Truong-Ngoc / Wikimedia Commons).
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobek_(%C3%A4gyptische_Mythologie) Sobek (Ägyptische Mythologie).
- https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wissen/archaeologie-altertum/krokodile-im-alten-aegypten-fuer-die-ewigkeit-einbalsamiert-17383485-p2.html Ulf von Rauchhaupt: Der kuriose Krokodilkult im alten Ägypten. Frankfurter Allgemeine, 18. Juni 2021.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westafrikanisches_Krokodil Westafrikanisches Krokodil.