In our research of the old beverage categories, we also came across the designation Bumbo and Rumbo. Today, this term is hardly known, although the pirate Captain Kidd and the first president of the United States, George Washington, drank it. What did they mean by it? So let’s take a chronological look at the surviving sources.
A pirate drink off Madagascar
We found the first reference to a Bumbo in connection with Captain Kidd. He had obtained an English privateer’s licence with which he was allowed to capture French ships. However, he had no success with this and great difficulty in covering the costs and paying a profit to the noble lords who covered four-fifths of the costs. Also, his crew did not sail on hire, but on share. So without sufficient booty, it had no revenue either. So Captain Kidd and his crew became pirates themselves. 
On 30 January 1698 they captured the Quedagh Merchant. [2-64] [2-65]   With this and his own ship, Captain Kidd sailed for Madagascar. [2-64] [2-65] [2-66]  At the trial of Captain Kidd for murder and piracy, the witness Palmer reported on 8 and 9 March 1701: – “Palmer. When we came to Madagascar, in the latter end of April, or beginning of May, 1696, there was a Ship call’d, The Resolution, which was formerly call’d, The Moco Frigate; several of the Men came off to Capt. Kidd, and told him, they heard he came to take, and hang them. He said, that it was not such Thing, and that he would do them all the Good he could. And Captain Culliford came aboard of Capt. Kidd, and Capt. Kidd went aboard of Culliford. Mr Coniers. Who was that Culliford? Palmer. The Captain of the Ship. And on the Quarter-deck they made some Bomboo, and drank together; and Capt. Kidd said, before I would do you any Harm, I would have my Soul fry in Hell-fire; and wished Damnation to himself several times, if he did. And he took the Cup, and wished that might be his last, if he did not do them all the Good he could. Mr.Powell. Did you take these Men to be Pirates? Palmer. They were reckoned so. Dr. Newton. Did Captain Kidd make Culliford any Presents? Palmer. Yes, he had four Guns of him. Dr. Newton. Of whom? Palmer. Of Captain Kidd, he presented him with them.” [1-306] A note is necessary here: it should read 1698, because Captain Kidd did not leave Plymouth until May 1796. [2-59]
Später heißt es in dem Verhör: „Mr. Bar. Hatsell: Was sagte Capt. Kidd zu Culliford, als sie zusammen tranken? Palmer: Sie bereiteten einen Bottich mit Bomboo zu, wie sie ihn nennen (er besteht aus Wasser und Limetten und Zucker), und dort stießen sie aufeinander an; und, sagt Kapitän Kidd, bevor ich Euch Schaden zufügte, ließe ich lieber meine Seele im Höllenfeuer schmoren. Mr. Soll. Gen.: Waren Sie damals dabei? Palmer. Das war auf dem Achterdeck der Fregatte Mocca. Mr. Soll. Gen.: Was waren das für Männer auf dem Schiff? Als was haben Sie sie wahrgenommen? Palmer: Sie waren Piraten.“ [1-335]
Later, the interrogation states: “Mr. Bar. Hatsell. What did Capt. Kidd say to Culliford, when they were drinking together? Palmer. They made a Tub of Bomboo, as they call it, (it is made of Water and Limes, and Sugar) and there they drank to one another; and, says Capt. Kidd, before I would do you any Damage, I had rather my Soul should broil in Hell-fire. Mr. Soll. Gen. Was you there then? Palmer. This was on the Quarter-deck of the Mocca Frigate. Mr. Soll. Gen. What were those Men in that Ship? What did you apprehend them to be? Palmer. They were Pirates.” [1-335]
On 23 May 1701, Captain Kidd was hanged in London. 
The Bomboo mentioned here is obviously Bumbo, only with a different spelling. According to the report, it is made from water, lime and sugar. One essential ingredient does not seem to be specified here: something like rum. This may have been taken for granted or simply forgotten to be mentioned. All the other later information about how a bumbo is prepared always mentions a spirit.
It is also really hard to imagine pirates on a quarterdeck toasting each other with lemonade. In fact, permissive drinking was one of the reasons for being a pirate. [6-52] Pirates often drank to relax or to celebrate together, and a cup of wine, rum or grog was not to be missed at meals, to which numerous toasts were made. In many buccaneer communities it was customary to be consistently drunk. [6-53]
A drink in North America
But it was not only in Madagascar that pirates drank their bumbo, it was also drunk in North America. In 1734, this happened high up north, on Hudson Bay: “The weather thickened again more than ever, the snow fell in greater quantities, and the day was far spent. Having no mind to take up my residence where we were, I told Allen that we would only light a small fire in order to make some bumbo with melted snow, and return immediately to the tent.” [8-28]
Ten years later, it is reported about the Bumbo: – “Monday, June 18th, 1744. Breakfasted at Mr. Thomas’s about 8 o’clock this morning, and soon after set out with him, and the Rev. Mr. Craddock, … for Patapscoe. Arrived at James Moore’s ordinary, at the head of Severn river, about one o’clock, where we dined; but such a dinner was prepared for us, as never was either seen or coocked in the highlands of Scotland, or the isles of Orkney. It consisted of six eggs fried with six pieces of bacon, with some clammy pone or Indian bread. But as hunger knows little of cleanliness, and withal very impatient, we fell to, and soon devoured the victuals. Our liquor was sorry rum, mixed with water and sugar, which bears the heathenish name of bumbo. Of this we drank about a pint, to keep down the nauseous eggs and bacon.” [7-171] [7-172]
“Monday morning, 25th June, 1744. At 10 o’clock, the Indian sachems met the Governor, the honourable commissioners of Virginia, and those of this province, when his Honour made them a speech, * to which Cannasateego returned an answer in behalf of all others present. The Indians staid in the court-house about two hours; and were regaled with some bumbo and sangree.” [7-184] [7-185]
One also reports a meeting with the representatives of the Six Nations, which is a term for Iroquois who call themselves Haudenosaunee, “people of the longhouse”:  “Friday, June the 29th, 1744, A. M. Our commissioners and the Six Nations had a private conference in the court-house chamber, when they jointly proceeded to settle the bounds and quantity of land the latter were to release to Lord baltimore, in Maryland; … We again presented the sachems, here, with bumbo punch, with which they drank prosperity and success to their Father, the great King over the waters, and to the health of our commissioners.“ [7-191] [7-192]
In 1784, a travel report from the United States of America contains a description that leads us to assume that Bumbo and Toddy are identical: “The gentleman of fortune rises about nine o’clock; … he returns to breakfast, between nine and ten … ; between twelve and one he takes a draught of bombo, or toddy, a liquor composed of water, sugar, rum, and nutmeg, which is made weak, and kept cool: he dines between two and three … ; at dinner he drinks cyder, toddy, punch, port, claret, and madeira, which is generally excellent here: having drank some few glasses of wine after dinner, he returns to his pallat, with his two blacks to fan him, and continues to drink toddy, or sangaree, all afternoon”. [19-41] [19-42]
A drink in Afrika
It is reported for the year 1735: “On the 31st, about Noon, died one of our Ship-Mates, Mr James Ellis, who was ill when we left Gambia, but died a Martyr to Rum; for when he was not able to lift a Mug to his Mouth, he made shift to suck thro’ a Pipe, and died with a Pipe and a Mug full of Bumbo close to his Pillow.” [9-232]
This is an indication that Bumbo was made with rum.
On the Tropic Baptism
A Tropic Baptism celebrated in October 1746, which is celebrated when one crosses the Tropic for the first time, is reported: – „On passing the Tropic, and entering the Torrid-Zone, all the people on board, who had never gone this voyage, according to custom, treated their companions with punch, bumbo, &c.“ [10-5]
A hot drink
A Bumbo can also be consumed as a hot drink, according to a report from 1757: “A can of bumbo smoaking in his hand;” [13-180]
A drink on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland.
It is about smuggling on the Isle of Man, located off the coastal town of Whitehaven in the northwest of England. An author reports about it in a book of the year 1757 as follows: “Above 4000 gallons of this brandy were last year seized at different times, put up to sale at the custom-house at Whitehaven, but it would not fetch even the king’s duty. Is not this a plain demonstration that the country about was supplied with it by the smugglers at a much lower price? … Almost every soul along the coast of Cumberland, &c. even the beggars and their brats, if they can steal any thing to purchase coarse sugar, drink tea once or twice a day, especially the damnified teas imported from Gottenburgh, &c. into the Isle of Man … . By such deplorable means, punch, bumbo, rumbo, and dry drams, have universally prevailed among all degrees of people on the coasts of Great-Britain and Ireland lying round the said island, to the inconceivable detriment of both the customs and excise, and it lessens in proportion the consumption of malt liquor, and the necessary motives of brewing it well.“ [17-407] [17-408]
A drink to win over voters
George Washington already bribed his voters with alcohol. When, at the age of twenty-four, he first ran for a seat in the Virginia House of Burgesses and did not win, he attributed his defeat to not providing enough alcohol to voters at the polls. Two years later, in 1758, he ran again, spending 160 gallons of rum, punch, hard cider and beer. Each of his electors received about a pint and a half of it. This practice was widespread in the southern and middle American colonies at the time, especially in Virginia, Maryland and New York, and is said to have been referred to as “swilling the planters with bumbo“, which could be translated as “filling the planters with bumbo”, or somewhat less positively as ” pig-feeding the planters with bumbo”.  
From the year 1769 it is reported in connection with poison mixing that there was also milk bumbo: “a public house was at hand, and at the request of Buss and his wife he went in and ordered some milk bumbo … ; when the bumbo was brought, Mrs. Lott drank it first, then Buss drank” [18-625]
What does the language dictionary say?
In 1788 a dictionary defines:- „BUMBO. Brandy, water, and sugar; also the negro name for the private parts of a woman.“ [28-BUMBO]
In 1738, a book was published anonymously with the title: “A Letter from Capt. Flip to Major Bumbo: Wherein are Vindicated, the Injured Characters of the Late Brave Admiral Punch, and His Most Accomplish’d Daughters, the Ladies Arrack, Coniac, Royal-Gin & Rumbo. Shewing, to a Demonstration, the Signal Services this Honourable and Worthy Family Have Done, and May Do to this Nation, in Any Expedition, Either to Spithead, Or the West-Indies; The Necessity of Restoring the degraded Admiral to His former Post; the beneficial Consequences of permitting his four amiable Daughters to converse freely with our couragious Sailors.” [20-5]
This book states: “most of the Families of the Flips and Bumbo’s, are very near of Kin to the most noble Family of the Punchos.” [20-49]
It is also written: “We will not desire to drink Royal-Wine, but be content to drink Royal-Gin, converted either into Punch, Flip, or Bumbo; notwithstanding what his Physicians may intimate.” [20-53]
In 1780 it is stated: “Bumbo is a liquor composed of rum, sugar, water and nutmeg.”“ [27-120]
Also in 1788 it states: “and his bumbo I made.” [29-180]
In 1793 one writes in a poem: “Whilst potent draughts of bumbo, grog, and flip, Regale the thoughtless inmates of the ship.” [30-253]
In 1810, it is reported: “The pitmen and the keelmen trim, They drink bumbo made of gin”. [32-48]
In 1836 a book reports: “Every step which brought us nearer to Salisbury increased my pain at the thought of leaving so interesting a fellow-traveller. I observed that, at dinner, he contented himself with water, as his beverage. I asked him, „Whether he had ever tasted bumbo?“ a West Indian potation, which is neither more nor less than very strong punch.” [26-442]
In 1844 one writes: “and a glass containing a draught of bombo, or sangaree, a liquor composed of water, sugar, rum, lemon-juice, and nutmeg”. [22-62]
In 1871, a letter to the editor from Mr Cowper appears with an answer to his question: “In an old hotel bill of 1769 I find – … “Bumbo . . . 1 s. 0 d.” … what was Bumbo? J. M. Cowper. … Bumbo we take to be Rumbo, a nautical drink. Sir Walter Scott says: “He introduced himself on the awful presence of Hawkins the boatswain, and Derrick the quarter-master, who were regaling themselves with a can of rumbo, after the fatiguing duty of the day.“ (The Pirate, ch. xxxix.)”” [25-512]
In 1913, The Oxford Dictionary defines:- „Bumbo. Also bumboo, bombo. … ‘A liquor composed of rum, sugar, water and nutmeg’ … also other alcoholic mixtures.“ [24-1174]
In general, it is noticeable that from about 1800 onwards, the term “bumbo” is no longer mentioned so often. It seemed to have fallen out of fashion, or was called something else.
What ingredients go into a Bumbo?
- 1698: (rum), water, lime, sugar. [1-335]
- 1734: We can assume that the bumbo was drunk hot. [8-28]
- 1735: Bumbo is prepared with rum. [9-232]
- 1738: Similar to a punch. [20-49]
- 1744: Rum, water, sugar. [7-172]
- 1744: Bumbo is not a Sangree. [7-185]
- 1744: Bumbo Punch. [7-191]
- 1746: Bumbo is not a punch. [10-5]
- 1757: Bumbo is drunk hot. [13-180]
- 1757: Punch, Bumbo and Rumbo are mentioned. [17-407] [17-408] So Bumbo is probably something different from Rumbo (?) and from Punch?
- 1769: One prepares Milk Bumbo. [18-625]
- 1780: Rum, sugar, water and nutmeg. [27-120]
- 1784: also called toddy (?), a spirit made of water, sugar, rum and nutmeg, prepared weakly and kept cool. [19-41] [19-42]
- 1788: Brandy, water, sugar. [28-BUMBO]
- 1788: A mixed drink. [29-180]
- 1793: Bumbo, Grog and Flip are different from each other. [30-253]
- 1810: Bumbo is made with gin. [32-48]
- 1836: Bumbo is a very strong Punch, i.e. with little dilution. Originates from the West Indies. [26-442]
- 1869: Rum, water, sugar, nutmeg. [Historische Rezepte]
- 1913: Rum, sugar, water, nutmeg. And other. [24-1174]
- 1937: Rum, Water, Sugar, Nutmeg. [Historische Rezepte]
As we can see, the recipe of a Bumbo is not clearly defined. It can be something like a Toddy, a Punch. You can drink it hot or cold. You can make it with milk. You can add spices or do without them. From this it can be deduced that the Bumbo is not a beverage category of its own.
Rumbo – what can be found about it?
In connection with the Bumbo, the Rumbo was sometimes also mentioned. Let us therefore look at whether the two differ. What do the old books say about the Rumbo?
Already in 1738 the Rumbo is mentioned together with the Bumbo, but without going into more detail about what it is. [20-5]
The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle
The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, published in 1751, states: “For, when he is well, he and my good master Hatchway come hither every evening, and drink a couple of canns of rumbo apiece.” [11-10]
“Hatchway … went immediately to the hoster and bespoke a post-chaise for Mr. Pickle and his man, with whom he afterwards indulged himself in a double cann of rumbo”. [11-157]
A Punch without Acid
In 1755, Rumbo is described in more detail in connection with kidney stones. It is said that the patient “should abstain from acids and fermenting liquors. But he may drink punch without acid, commonly called rumbo. Spirits must not be drank at all”. [12-87]
A drink for soldiers
An order dated 29 April 1760 stipulates for British soldiers in Quebec City: “The Officers are desired to be very circumspect in keeping the men sober; their rum to be continually mixed with water, in the presence of an Officer. The men on duty are directed to parade with their canteens of rumbo, and always twenty-four hours’ provisions ready dressed.” [16-297]
A drink for travellers
In 1760 Tobias George Smollett wrote: “Three of the travellers, who arrived on horseback, having seen their cattle properly accommodated in the stable, agreed to pass the time, until the weather should clear up, over a bowl of rumbo, which was accordingly prepared“. [31-2]
A revolutionary drink
It is reported from the year 1775 from New York: “A meeting was summoned, the parties met, and after swallowing (at the house of Jasper Drake, a tavern-keeper upon the dock, and father-in-law to Isaac Sears before mentioned) a sufficient quantity of Rumbo, 1 about twelve at night they sallied forth … 1 A kind of strong punch made chiefly of rum.” [21-64]
What does the language dictionary say?
In 1788, a dictionary defines: “RUMBO. Rum, water, and sugar; also a prison.” [28-RUMBO]
One drinks hot …
In 1811, a conversation is published in which it is said: ““I’am not for hot water,” says I, “good young woman, unless mixed with rumbo, with sugar and lemon.”” [35-4]
… or stronger
In 1813 it was reported that a Rumbo could also be prepared stronger: “a can of stout rumbo“ [34-96]
In 1823 one reports: “Spirits in all ways prepared, stark-naked, hot or cold watered; Negus, or godlike grog, flip, lambswool, syllabub, rumbo; Toddy, or punch”. [36-66]
Which ingredients go into a Rumbo?
- 1755: A Punch without acid. [12-87]
- 1775: A type of strong Punch consisting mainly of rum. [21-64]
- 1788: Rum, water, sugar. [28-RUMBO]
- 1811: Rum, hot water, sugar, lemon [35-4]
- 1823: No Grog, Toddy or Punch? [36-66]
Again, it is evident that a Rumbo is not precisely defined. This is not surprising, because even if an encyclopaedia writes that Bumbo is made with brandy and Rumbo with rum, this is a conjecture from more recent times and cannot be substantiated by further sources.
Etymology of the name Bumbo and Rumbo
Bumbo and Rumbo are identical, and we may assume that the differences in the name have resulted from local variations and linguistic customs.
We have looked into the etymology of this designation and have come across some astonishing things. Bumbo and Rumbo may not represent a separate category of mixed drinks, but linguistically they are the link to an answer to a centuries-old, as yet unresolved question: Why is rum called “Rum” or “Kill Devil”?
More will not be revealed at this point. You can look forward to an extensive, exciting analysis.
- https://archive.org/details/completecollecti05salm?q=bomboo Anonymus: A complete collection of state-trials, and proceedings for high-treason, and other crimes and misdemeanours; from the reign of King Richard II. to the end of the reign of King George I. The fifth volume. The second edition, with great additions. London, 1730.
- https://archive.org/details/historyofpirates01care?q=bomboo Anonymus: The History of the pirates, containing the lives of those noted pirate captains, Misson, Bowen, Kidd, Tew, Halsey, White, Condent, Bellamy, Fly, Howard, Lewis, Cornelius, Williams, Burgess, North, and their several crews. Hartford, 1829.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kidd_(Pirat) William Kidd (Pirat).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quedagh_Merchant Quedagh Merchant.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kidd_(Pirat)#/media/Datei:William_Kidd.jpg William Kidd, privateer, pirate. 18th century portrait by Sir James Thornhill.
- https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11582129.pdf Florian Hartl: Seeräuberalltag in der Karibik – Über das Leben in frühneuzeitlichen Freibeuterkommunen. Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Magister der Philosophie (Mag. phil.) an der Universität Wien, April 2008.
- https://archive.org/details/collectionsv7mass/page/172/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, for the year 1800. Boston, 1801.
- https://archive.org/details/accountofsixyear00robs_0/page/n43/mode/2up?q=bumbo Joseph Robson: An account of six years residence in Hudson’s-Bay, from 1733 to 1736, and 1744 to 1747. By Joseph Robson, late surveyor and supervisor of the buildings to the Hudson’s-Bay company. Containing a variety of facts, observations, and discoveries. London, 1752.
- https://archive.org/details/travelsintoinlan00moor/page/232/mode/2up?q=bumbo Francis Moore: Travels into the inland parts of Africa: containing a Description of the Several Nations for the space of Six Hundred Miles up the River Gambia; their Trade, Habits, Customs, Language, Manners, Religion and Government; the Power, Disposition and Characters of some Negro Princes; with a particular Account of Job Ben Solomon, a Pholey, who was in England in the Year 1733, and known by the Name of the African. To which is added, Capt. Stibbs’s Voyage up the Gambia in the Year 1723, to make Discoveries; with An Accurate Map of that River taken on the Spot: And many other Copper Plates. Also extracts from the Nubian’s Geography, Leo the African, and other Authors antient and modern, concerning the Niger, Nile, or Gambia, and Observations thereon. London, 1738.
- https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.55695?q=bumbo Anonymus: Voyage to the East Indies in 1747 and 1748. London, 17xx.
- https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_OrBbAAAAQAAJ/page/n23/mode/2up?q=rumbo Anonymus (Tobias George Smollet): The adventures of Peregrine Pickle In which are included, Memoirs of a lady of quality. In four volumes. Vol. 1. London, 1751.
- https://archive.org/details/cookeryreformedo00londiala?q=rumbo Anonymus: Cookery reformed: or, The Lady’s assistant. Containing a select number of the best and most approved receipts in cookery, pastry, preserving, candying, pickling, &c. … To which is added, The Family Physician; comprehending an easy, safe and certain method of curing most diseases incident to the human body. London, 1755.
- https://archive.org/details/s2492id1330005?q=bumbo Anonymus: The Gentleman’s Magazine. Vol. 27. London, April 1757.
- https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/swilling-the-planters-with-bumbo-when-booze-bought-elections-102758236/ Swilling the Planters With Bumbo: When Booze Bought Elections. Von Lisa Bramen, vom 20. October 2010.
- https://www.questia.com/read/14291983/campaigning-in-america-a-history-of-election-practices Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices. Von J. Dinkin, 1989.
- https://archive.org/details/historicaljourna02knox?q=rumbo John Knox: An historical journal of the campaigns in North-America, for the years 1757, 1758, 1759, and 1760: containing the most remarkable occurrences of that period; particularly the two sieges of Quebec, &c. &c. the orders of the admirals and general officers; descriptions of the countries where the author has served, with their forts and garrisons; their climates, soil, produce; and a regular diary of the weather. As also several manifesto’s, a mandate of the late bishop of Canada; the French orders and disposition for the defence of the colony, &c. &c. &c. . Vol. 2, London, 1769.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=yno7AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA408&lpg=PA408&dq=%22bumbo%22+%22rumbo%22&source=bl&ots=Z5tiBxiP-l&sig=ACfU3U2zdxdFTEU36JtWZEbUimTQSGkIrg&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit2cP4vrbqAhXyt3EKHeTVBvYQ6AEwDHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22bumbo%22%20%22rumbo%22&f=false Malachy Postlethwayt: Britain’s commercial interest explained and improved; in a series of dissertations on several important branches of her trade and police: containing a candid enquiry into the secret causes of the present misfortunes of the nation. With proposals for their remedy. Also the great advantages which would accrue to this kingdom from an union with Ireland. In two volumes. Volume 1. London, 1757.
- https://archive.org/details/gentlemanslondon00unse/page/626/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: The Gentleman’s and London’s Magazine: or, the monthly chronologer. Vol. 39. Dublin, 1769.
- https://archive.org/details/cihm_41222/page/n69/mode/2up/search/toddy?q=toddy J[ohn] F[erdinand] Smyth: A tour in the United States of America: containing an account of the present situation of that country, the population, agriculture, commerce, customs, and manners of the inhabitants; anecdotes of several members of the congress, and general officers in the American army; and many other very singular and interesting occurrences. With a description of the Indian nations, the general face of the country, mountains, forests, rivers, and the most beautiful, grand, and picturesque views throughout that vast continent. Likewise improvements in husbandry that may be adopted with great advantage in Europe. London, 1784.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=OxJgAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=bumbo+rumbo&source=bl&ots=CT-rZwqidf&sig=ACfU3U2QWH–she9i0px2x8chnGfOrQr4A&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjT2Yb4_631AhXjhv0HHYSsAQU4MhDoAXoECAIQAw#v=onepage&q=bumbo%20rumbo&f=false Anonymus: A Letter from Capt. Flip to Major Bumbo: Wherein are Vindicated, the Injured Characters of the Late Brave Admiral Punch, and His Most Accomplish’d Daughters, the Ladies Arrack, Coniac, Royal-Gin & Rumbo. Shewing, to a Demonstration, the Signal Services this Honourable and Worthy Family Have Done, and May Do to this Nation, in Any Expedition, Either to Spithead, Or the West-Indies; The Necessity of Restoring the degraded Admiral to His former Post; the beneficial Consequences of permitting his four amiable Daughters to converse freely with our couragious Sailors. London, 1738.
- https://archive.org/details/historyofnewyork01jone/page/64/mode/2up?q=rumbo Thomas Jones: History of New York during the Revolutionary War, and of the leading events in the other colonies at that period. Volume I, New York 1879.
- https://archive.org/details/bentleysmiscell23smitgoog/page/n74/mode/2up/search/sangaree?q=sangaree Bentley’s miscellany. Vol. XV. London, 1844.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irokesen Irokesen.
- https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.99992/page/n1211/mode/2up?q=bumbo James A. H. Murray et. al. [editor]: The Oxford English Dictionary. Volume 1. Oxford, 1913.
- https://archive.org/details/notesqueries47unse/page/512/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: Notes and Queries. Fourth series, volume seventh. London, 1871.
- https://archive.org/details/johnsonianaorsup00boswrich/page/442/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: Johnsoniana; or, supplement to Boswell: being anecdotes and sayings of Dr. Johnson. London, 1836.
- https://archive.org/details/novelistsmagazi09unkngoog?q=bumbo Anonymus: The Novelist’s Magazine. Vol. 2. London, 1780.
- https://archive.org/details/b2876190x/page/n399/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus (Francis Grose): A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue. The second edition, corrected and enlarged. London, 1788.
- https://archive.org/details/annualregistero10conggoog/page/n502/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: The annual register, or a view of the history, politics, and literature for the year 1788. The second Edition. London, 1790.
- https://archive.org/details/beeorliterarywe00unkngoog/page/n267/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: The Bee, or the literary weekly intelligencer. Edinburgh, 13. Februar 1793.
- https://archive.org/details/adventuressirla00smolgoog?q=rumbo Anonymus (Tobias George Smollett): The adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves. A new edition, corrected. Vol. 1. London, 1793. First published 1760-1761 in The British Magazine. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Life_and_Adventures_of_Sir_Launcelot_Greaves]
- https://archive.org/details/northerngarlands00hasl?q=bumbo Joseph Ritson (Hrsg.): Northern Garlands. London, 1810.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keelmen Keelmen.
- https://archive.org/details/posthumousdramat01cumbiala?q=rumbo Anonymus: The posthumous dramatick works of the late Richard Chamberlain, esq. Vol. 1. London, 1813.
- https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000113491215&view=1up&seq=18&q1=rumbo W. Oxberry: The actor’s budget: consisting of monologues, prologues, epilogues, and tales, serious and comic; together with ollins’s evening brush, and rare and genuine collection of theatrical anecdotes, comic songs, &c. &c. Vol. 1. London, 1811.
- https://archive.org/details/blackwoodsedinb46unkngoog/page/n84/mode/2up?q=rumbo Anonymus: Blackwood’s Edinburgh magazine. No. 78, Vol. 14. London, Juli 1823.
1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 216. Roderick Random, or Bumbo Punch.
nutmeg into 1 pint of rum; let it digest two days;
strain; add pint of water; sufficient sugar to
1937 R. de Fleury: 1800 – And All That. Seite 296. Roderick Random or Bumbo Punch.
Grate a Nutmeg into a
pint of Rum and let it
digest for two days.
Strain and add a pint
of Water and sufficient
Sugar to taste.