After looking at the etymology of the terms ‘rum’ and ‘kill-devil’ so far, and not only getting an overview of the context in which they were used in the early years, but also showing what rum was initially produced from, our journey now moves from the Caribbean to faraway places, namely West Africa. We learn about the importance of alcohol in society and religion. This is important to understand because this is also the basis of the African American religions of the Caribbean.
Where did the slaves of the Caribbean come from? Since the term ‘rum’ is said to have originated in Barbados and the term ‘kill-devil’ was also known there, our focus will be on answering the question of the origin of African slaves in Barbados.
The English settlement of Barbados began on February 17, 1627 with 80 settlers and 10 laborers. Occasionally it is said that Africans were also among them.  The colony grew rapidly. Barbados had an estimated 30,000 inhabitants in 1644, 800 of whom were of African descent. By 1655, Barbados had an estimated 23,000 Europeans and 20,000 Africans. By 1660 there were 26,000 Europeans and 27,000 Africans, by 1673 there were 21,000 Europeans and 33,000 Africans, by 1680 there were 20,000 Europeans and 46,000 Africans, and by 1724 there were 18,000 Europeans and 55,000 Africans. [3-25] [3-26]  However, there are also estimates that within 30 years of the English arrival, the population had already increased from 80 to 75,000, mainly due to the abduction of Africans as slaves. [15-142]
Most of the Africans abducted to Barbados came from the Bay of Biafra: there were about 62,000. There were 59,000 from the Gold Coast and 45,000 from the Bay of Benin. In addition, there were 29,000 from Central Africa, 14,000 from Senegambia, 13,000 from the Ivory Coast and 9,000 from Sierra Leone.  So we’re talking about the west coast of Africa, from Senegal in the north down to Angola.
Alcohol was important to enslaved Africans, not only in the Caribbean, but even before they were enslaved in Africa. In order to properly appreciate the importance of alcohol, we must look at the significance of alcohol in West African religions.
Importance of alcohol West Africa
Types of alcoholic beverages
South of the Sahara, there are two types of alcoholic beverages that are traditionally consumed. One is beers made from millet, typical of the savannah areas of East and South Africa and the Sahel. The other is the palm and banana wines of the tropical areas, typical of Central and West Africa and the coastal areas. [4-25]
Palm wine is obtained by cutting into palm trees and collecting the juice, which is then fermented. [4-25] Since the banana originated in Asia, we will leave it out of our further consideration. Starting in the 18th century, distilled alcohol such as brandy or gin was brought to Africa in large quantities. [4-25] However, this development is also not relevant for our consideration, since an earlier period is interesting for us.
Communication with the Spirit World and Ancestors
Unless one came from Islamic areas, ancestors, spirits and deities played an active role in the daily lives of the living. The intoxicating effects of alcohol allowed alcohol-induced possession by spirits and thus communication with the spirit world. Also libations were a way to get in contact with the spirit world. It was used to show reverence to ancestors and spirit beings, and thus libations helped to secure the needs of the community. With them, individuals, families, and clans asked for the favor of ancestral spirits. For example, a libation could be used to speed the recovery of a sick person. [11-231] [11-252]
libations to deities, spirits and ancestors.
The Akan are native to what is now the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire and the central and southern parts of what is now Ghana.  Pieter de Marees, in his travelogue of the Akan published in 1602, reports that they pour the first drop of palm wine on the ground as a tribute to ancestors. If “fetishes” were tied to arms and legs during a ceremony, they spit the first palm wine they had in their mouths on these fetishes. [11-231] John Barbot, who traveled Guinea from 1678 to 1682, [10-381]  and whose travel account was published in 1732,   reports the same ceremony: to obtain the blessing of their ancestors, the Akan make offerings of food and alcohol several times a year. [11-231] Willem Bosman arrived in Ghana in 1688 at the age of sixteen and later became the chief representative of the Dutch West India Company in Elmina, the main Dutch town on the Gold Coast. He traveled the Gold Coast and returned to the Netherlands in 1702.  He also reported, as did John Barbot, that the Akan made libations to their ancestors, spirits, and deities before most ventures. [11-231]
The Imbangala people of 17th century West Central Africa also used palm wine extensively in their rituals. They poured it on the graves of their ancestors to make contact with the dead. [11-236]
Among the Igbo, native to present-day Nigeria,  alcoholic libations were also offered to ancestors and gods in public and private ceremonies. John Barbot reports that they never drank alcoholic liquor without pouring a little of it on the ground for their “idol.” [11-232] Such ceremonies were intended to appease the spirits of the ancestors and obtain their blessings in worldly undertakings. [11-232]
Such practices also existed among the Arda and the Congo. Willem Bosman reports that the worshippers of a snake cult at Whydah habitually left libations in the snake house. [11-232] In 1864, R.F. Burton, in his account of the kingdom of Dahomé on the coast of the Bay of Benin, confirms the importance of alcohol in such a context. [11-232]  The anthropologist Meville Herskovits writes that in Dahomy, even in the 1930s, rum was an offering to a voodoo deity. [11-232]
Karl Laman reports on the Congo in his 1953 book, “Here and there one still finds special houses for the safe keeping of the nkisi, idols and ancestral images. One also comes across small, well-built ancestral homes where there is only a cup into which palm wine is poured to be offered to the ancestors.” [11-233]
-“Hier und da findet man noch immer spezielle Häuser für die sichere Aufbewahrung der Nkisi, Idole und Ahnenbilder. Man stößt auch auf kleine, gut gebaute Ahnenhäuser, in denen es nur einen Becher gibt, in den man Palmwein gießt, der den Ahnen geopfert wird.” [11-233]
The true meaning of alcohol has often been misunderstood. In 1705, the Portuguese missionary Laurent de Lucques reported that the inhabitants of Soyo did nothing but drink. In 1968, Georges Balandier published a work on everyday life in the Congo from the 16th to the 18th century, in which he explains that Laurent de Lucques misinterpreted the meaning of drinking: instead, there was a social necessity for it and palm wine was required on many occasions, especially during all the rituals in honor of the ancestors. Georges Balandier concludes that Laurent de Lucques observed an opening of communication with the ancestors that takes place before the harvest ceremony. [11-232] [11-233]
Birth as a return from the spirit world
In pre-colonial times, birth was considered by the Akan and Ikbo as the return from the spirit world. For a successful transition between worlds, it was necessary to support it through the use of alcohol, a powerful and sacred liquid. [11-233] The Akan believed the newborn had two mothers, one in this world and one in the spirit world. They feared that the spirit mother would take the child back, so they did not give it a name for 9 days, and to appease the spirit mother, they offered alcohol. [11-233] For the Igbo, there was also a connection between the newborn and the spirit world. A newborn represented the reincarnated spirit of a deceased relative. During alcohol-based ceremonies, its identity was established. As a greeting to the reincarnated spirit, palm wine was given to the newborn child. [11-233] Similar alcohol-based ceremonies also took place at births in the Congo. [11-234]
Marriage strengthened the ties between families and clans. However, one needed the consent and the help of the ancestors for this, and in order to obtain this, one needed alcohol. The important role of alcohol in Akan weddings was already pointed out by Pieter de Marees, John Barbot and Willem Bosman. The wedding ceremony itself was called the same as the palm wine, “nsa,” and was the exchange of drinks in the presence of witnesses and the pouring of a libation to the gods and ancestors. [11-234] Laurent de Lucques also confirms the indispensability of palm wine for the successful conclusion of a marriage in West Central Africa. [11-235]
Death as the return to the spirit world
Just as birth is the arrival from the spirit world, death is the end of physical life and the return to the spirit world. Alcohol is also central to this journey. Among the Akan, a proper burial could only take place with plenty of alcohol. This ensured the successful transition of the deceased to the spirit world. In addition, alcohol sacrifices guaranteed the future support of the deceased and prosperity for the family and community left behind. [11-235]
Pieter de Marees reports that the Akan put food and drink on the graves of the deceased because, they “live on it, and [thus] pots of water and palm-wine are constantly renewed.” [11-235] This custom was also common elsewhere. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the people of the Congo were known to bury their dead in the mountains in cool and pleasant places, leaving them wine and food. [11-236]
John Barbot reports from the Gold Coast: [11-235] “As soon as the corps is let down into the grave, the persons who attended the funeral drink palm wine, or rum plentifully out of oxes horns: and what they cannot drink off at a draught, they spill on the grave of their deceased friend, that he may have his share of the liquor.” [10-283]
Alcohol was also necessary at funerals among the Igbo, who were reported to sprinkle alcohol on the deceased and consume cases of gin and an unlimited supply of palm wine during the important second funeral feast. [11-235] Francis Arincz published a book on Igbo religion in 1970, noting that the Igbo offered alcohol to their ancestors during funeral ceremonies so that the spirits of the ancestors would welcome the newly departed soul. [11-235] [11-236]
Drinking alcohol at funerals was an important part of life. Willem Bosman reports from the city of Benin that a public mourning there usually lasted fourteen days, during which time people drank copiously. [11-236]
Alcohol was not only necessary for contact with the spirit world. Its spiritual properties also played an important role in drinking rituals to resolve social divisions, forge alliances, or strengthen community bonds. Willem Bosman, for example, reports in his 1705 book of the Gold Coast: “When they take the oath-draught, ’tis usually accompanied with an imprecation, that the fetische may kill them if they do not perform the contents of their obligation. Every person entering into any obligation is obliged to drink the swearing liquor. When any nation is hired to the assistance of another, all the chief ones are obliged to drink this liquor, with an imprecation, that their fetische may punish them with death, if they do not assist them with utmost vigo and extirpate their enemy.” [11-236]
A Powerful Means of Social Control
Since alcohol was needed to contact the spirit world, a powerful form of social control was associated with its possession. Chiefs and elders owned the land and labor needed to make palm wine. Their authority and influence ensured not only that they received alcohol from the community as tribute, but also that they could bargain for alcohol from slave traders and merchants. [11-238]
Whoever possessed alcohol had power. The importance of alcohol is also shown by the fact that warring groups wanted to destroy the spiritual power of their enemies by destroying their palm groves.[11-238]
Since power was directly linked to alcohol, the concept of ‘alcohol for slaves’ was able to establish itself in the early years of African trade. Palm wine and brandy imports from Europe were replaced by rum from the New World at the end of the 17th century. [11-232] [11-238]
Essential to understanding kill-devil and rum and their etymology is the need for alcoholic beverages in West African religions, as described earlier. We must therefore go into more detail about the faiths, including voodoo.
West African and African American Religions
Voodoo, also called Vodun, Voudou, Wudu, or Wodu, is a religion that originally developed in West Africa and is now also prevalent in Creole societies, particularly in Haiti. Voodoo came to the Caribbean through the abduction and enslavement of the West African population. In the Caribbean, elements of other religions, predominantly Christian, were added. There are about 60 million voodoo followers worldwide. 
To understand voodoo, one must understand its origins in West Africa. Against the background of what has already been stated, one understands better a travel description published in 1749 in German translation. It gives us a vivid picture, which is why it is quoted here: “Religion and Government in Benin. … The religion of the blacks in Benin is mostly the same as the one that goes westward along the coast and depends on the worship of fetishes. Nyendael says that they take everything extraordinary in nature for a god and sacrifice to him, e.g. elephant teeth, claws, human skulls and skeletons. These they regarded as subordinate deities or mediators between them and the supreme god, …. . All evil they call devils … (Nyendael on the 454 page). Dapper reports that they have a concept of a supreme invisible being, named Orissa, who created heaven and earth and still rules the world. But because it is always good, they consider it unnecessary to worship it; on the contrary, they try to appease the devil with sacrifices (Ogilby’s Africa on page 477 and Barbot on page 374). They talk a lot about apparitions of their deceased ancestors and relatives in sleep, who command them to do this or that sacrifice. … (Nyendael on the 455 page). Their fetishir or priests pretend that they are in acquaintance with the devil … (Ogilby on the 478 page.)” [5-456] [5-457]
– “Religion und Regierungsart zu Benin. … Die Religion der Schwarzen in Benin ist meistens mit derjenigen einerley, die längst der Küste westwärts im Schwange geht, und auf die Verehrung der Fetische ankömmt. Nyendael saget, sie nähmen alles außerordentliche in der Natur für einen Gott an, und opferten demselben, z. E. Elephantenzähne, Klauen, Menschenschädel und Gerippe. Diese sähen sie als untergeordnete Gottheiten oder Mittler zwischen ihnen und dem obersten Gotte an, … . Alles Böse nennen sie Teufel … (Nyendael auf der 454 Seite). Dapper meldet, sie hätten einen Begriff von einem obern unsichtbaren Wesen, Namens Orissa, das Himmel und Erde erschaffen hätte, und die Welt noch regierte. Aber weil es allezeit gut ist; so halten sie für unnöthig, dasselbe anzubethen; da sie gegentheils den Teufel mit Opfern zu besänftigen suchen (Ogilbys Africa auf der 477 Seite. Und Barbot auf der 374 Seite.). Sie reden sehr viel von Erscheinungen ihrer verstorbenen Vorfahren und Anverwandten im Schlafe, die ihnen beföhlen, diese oder jene Opfer zu thun. … (Nyendael auf der 455 Seite). Ihre Fetischir oder Priester geben vor, sie stünden mit dem Teufel in Bekanntschaft … (Ogilby auf der 478 Seite.)” [5-456] [5-457]
“Religion, mokissos or idols, and priests of Loango. … The inhabitants in the kingdoms of Loango, Rakongo and Angoy have no knowledge of God beyond the mere name … . All worship is done to their field and household idols, of which they have a large number. Each one has, according to his office and what is under him, his special name. Some have wind and lightning under their power; others serve as scarecrows to protect the grain; some have the fish in the sea; others the river fish; and still others have the cattle to look after. To others they ascribe their health and happiness, and to still others evil and misfortune.” [5-680]
– “Religion, Mokissos oder Götzenbilder, und Priester von Loango. … Die Einwohner in den Königreichen Loango, Rakongo und Angoy haben weiter keine Kenntnis von Gott, als den bloßen Namen … . Aller Gottesdienst wird ihren Feld- und Hausgötzen erzeiget, deren sie eine große Menge haben. Ein jeder hat, nach seinem Amte und dem, was unter ihm steht, seinen besondern Namen. Manche haben Wind und Blitz unter ihrer Gewalt; andere dienen als Vogelscheuche, das Korn zu beschützen; manche haben die Fische in der See; andere die Flußfische; und noch andere haben das Vieh zu besorgen. Andern schreiben sie ihre Gesundheit und ihr Glück, und wieder andern Übel und Unglück zu.” [5-680]
Shortly thereafter, a ceremony is described: “Then the company goes to a flat place where no trees grow, and close a circle around a guy with a drum. When the latter begins to beat and sing, the conjurer begins to dance. … Then he becomes possessed, makes horrible contorted faces, and stretches the body in strange positions with cruel screaming, takes fire in his hands, and bites, but without damaging himself. … The spirit gives an answer through the mouth of the possessed, and the latter works and mewls in the meantime, as if it were suffering great pain. Then they start singing and dancing until the devil comes out of him … . When someone among them falls ill, they call upon their devil (this is to be understood from the Mokisso, who nevertheless, according to these people, does not work through the devil’s, but through God’s power), until he enters the sick person, and then ask why the person is sick? whether he has broken his orders? and the like. The spirit answers this from the mouth of the sick person, and is persuaded to heal him by promises of some gifts (Here the deceitfulness of the priests is clearly shown.) (Ogilby in the above-mentioned place, on page 512.)“.
– “Darauf begiebt sich die Gesellschaft auf einen ebenen Platz, auf dem keine Bäume wachsen, und schließen einen Kreis um einen Kerl mit einer Trummel. Indem dieser anfängt zu schlagen und zu singen: so fängt der Beschwörer zu tanzen an. … Hierauf wird er besessen, machet schreckliche verzuckte Gesichter, und strecket den Leib in seltsame Stellungen mit grausamem Geschreye, nimmt Feuer in die Hände, und beißt, aber ohne sich zu beschädigen. … Der Geist giebt durch des Besessenen Mund eine Antwort, und dieser arbeitet und quälet sich mitlerweile, als ob er große Schmerzen ausstünde. Darauf fangen sie an zu singen und zu tanzen, bis der Teufel aus ihm herauskommt … . Wenn jemand unter ihnen krank wird, so rufen sie ihren Teufel (Dieses ist vom Mokisso zu verstehen, der gleichwohl, nach dieser Leute Meynung, nicht durch des Teufels, sondern durch Gottes Kraft, wirket.) an, bis er in den Kranken fährt, und fragen alsdann, warum der Mensch krank ist? ob er seine Befehle gebrochen hat? und dergleichen mehr. Der Geist antwortet darauf aus dem Munde des Kranken, und wird durch Versprechungen einiger Geschenke (Hier zeiget sich die Betrügerey der Priester deutlich.) gedungen, ihn zu heilen (Ogilby am oben angeführten Orte, auf der 512 Seite.)” [5-681]
Another book of importance for our concerns is by the already mentioned John Barbot. It is entitled ‘A description of the coasts of North ans South-Guinea’, and was published in 1732 with the note that it is now printed for the first time from his original manuscripts. Originally, the author’s name was Jean Barbot. He was a Frenchman who spent some time in the African trade, working for the Compagnie du Sénégal. Since he was a Huguenot, he had to leave France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and moved to England. According to his own statements, he made two trips to Africa between 1678 and 1682. He later wrote a French-language account of the West African coast entitled ‘Description des Côtes d’Affrique’, which he completed in 1688. However, he did not find a publisher for it. This description is partly based on his own observations, but also draws on earlier publications, especially that of the Dutchman Olfert Dapper in 1688.  Even though John Barbot’s book was not published until 1732, we may date his statements to about 1680. John Barbot titled the first book of his work “A Description of the Coasts of Nigrita, or North-Guinea”, defining: – “Nigrita, or Negroland, lies between 8 and 23 degrees of north latitude, and from 3 to 34 gegrees of longitude … . That country is commonly subdivided in two parts; one of which lies north of the Niger and Gambia Rivers; the other south of them.” [10-5]
He further writes:- »Meat offer to the devil. THE Blacks generally set a-part some small quantity of such victuals as they eat, for their Fetiches, or, as some will have it, for the devil, whom they call Gune, to oblige him to be kind to them; for if we may believe their own assertions, he often beats them; for if we may believe their own assertions, he often beats them. I remember a Black, from whose neck I once pulled away a Grigri, or spell, made a hideous noise about it, telling me, that Gune had beat him most unmercifully the next night; and that unless I would, in compassion, give him a bottle of brandy to treat Gune, and be reconciled to him, for having suffered me to take away his Grigri, he was confident he should be infallibly kill’d by him.« [10-51]
John Barbot continues: “The devil worshipped. Others again assert, that God, who is so good, so great, and so powerful as to produce the lightning, the rain, the thunder, the winds &c. and who rules the heavens and the earth, does not require the prayers and oblations of man, who is so infinitely below him in purity and fancy; but that the devil, being a wicked mischievous spirit, who, as they conceit, beats and torments them, they ought therefore frequently to make application to him, that he may become more merciful towards them. Hence we may infer, that most of the worship and the sacrifices, above mentioned to be offered in the woods and forests, are directed to the evil spirit, and not to the true God. The intention of their prayers and sacrifices is directed, that they may have hansome wives, plenty of corn and other food; that they may be victorious over their enemies; that the Gune, or the devil, may not hurt them; that they may have good weather, good fishing, and many such petitions, according to their several wants and desires.” [10-59]
In his third book, “A Description of the Coasts of South-Guinea,” we read: “These people believe, that the dead become spirits, which they call Jannack or Jananeen; that is, patrons or defenders, their business being to protect and assist their former relations and kindred … . In short, they have all a very great respect and veneration for the spirits of deceased persons, and rely on them as their tutelar gods. They never drink water or palm-wine, without first spilling a little of it for the Jananeen”. [10-124]
He describes a funeral ceremony as follows: “This offering is performed by the priest in the following manner: … . After some moments of profound silence, he mutters certain words, and taking into his mouth some water or palm-wine, spurts it out again on all idols“. [10-282]
“As soon as the corpse is let down into the grave, the persons who attend the funeral drink palm-wine, or rum plentyfull, out of oxes horns; and what they cannot drink off at draught, they spill on the grave of their deceased friend, that he may have his share of the liquor.” [10-283]
In the context of their religion, he writes: “The Blacks very much dread the devil, and quake at his very name, attributing to him all their misfortunes and disappointments, and believing that their other particular deities are sometimes over-ruled by him.” [10-305]
“They commonly solemnize their holy day, in some wide open place; in the midst of which, they erect a sort of table, or altar … and on it they lay Indian wheat, millet and rice-ears, palmwine, water, flesh, fish, bananas and other fruit, for the entertainment of their idols; being persuaded they eat those things, tho’ they daily see them devoured by birds of prey. As soon as they are all gone, they besmear the altar with palm-wine, and lay fresh provisions on it, that the deities may not want. In the mean time, the priest being seated in a wooden chair before the altar, encompass’d by a multitude of the people, of both sexes, at certain intervals makes them a discourse of some minutes, with some vehemence, in the nature of preaching; … Just by the priest stands a pot full of mixed liquor, with a sprinkler, and he sprinkles the faces of the congregation, who then all begin to sing and dance about the tree and altar; others playing on their musical instruments, till the priest stands up, to sprinkle the altar with the consecrated liquor, and then all the assistants clap their hands, and cry I-ou, I-ou, which imports Amen. Then every one goes home, fully persuaded of what the priest has said to them, of the power and virtues of their idols.” [10-308]
“Besides the peculiar Bossum, or idol every Black has, as mentioned above, they have also a great number of an inferior degree, consecrated to divers uses and purposes, and made of several filthy things, which I shall hereafter describe. They also worship the sea, rivers, lakes, ponds, fishes, mountains, trees, plants, herbs, rocks, woods, birds and beasts, as the ancient Gentiles had natural and animal gods. All those they call great idols, or deities, worshipping them as gods;” [10-309]
He then writes about a person: “… and that having that morning offered sacrifice to Bossum, together with the prayers of his priest, that god had commanded him to require, in satisfaction for his idol, a bottle of brandy, and two Ackiers of gold, to appease his wrath;” [10-312]
He also writes: ““orship in Groves with Drums, &c. Almost every town or village has near to it a small consecrated grove, to which the governors and people frequently resort, to make their offerings, either for the publick, or for themselves. … Generally at all their devotions the priest, or someone in the company, beats a drum or timbrel, and sings to it; and upon more publick solemnities, they add other instruments.” [10-315]
Another report of a journey to the green promontory, meaning the Cape Verde Islands, and the neighboring coast of Africa in 1606 by Peter van den Broeck states: “The rivers Gambra (or else Gambrig), Kachao (in French Catsiao), and St. Domingo, give a great quantity of ivory and wax, some gold and rice, and excellent ambergris. … Most of the Portuguese who reside here are veritable bandits. Some live in Portodale and Juval, where they trade with the English and Dutch. They buy here as many slaves as they can and lead them to St. Domingo or Kachao, from where they send them to Brazil, where they have a good value. … As far as the old inhabitants of this country were concerned, the author was able to find out about these special circumstances. … They are mostly idolaters. Some worship the moon, and others the devil, whom they call Kammate (see Jannequin’s journey in our II volume a. d. 289 p.). If one asks them why they worship the devil, they answer: because he harms them, but God does not. There are also some Muhammadans among them.” [6-151] [6-152]
– »Die Flüsse Gambra (Oder sonst Gambrig), Kachao (Im Französischen Catsiao), und St. Domingo, geben eine große Menge von Elfenbein und Wachs, etwas Gold und Reiß, und vortrefliches Ambra. … Die meisten Portugiesen, die sich hier aufhalten, sind wahrhafte Banditen. Einige wohnen zu Portodale und Juval, wo sie mit den Engländern und Holländern handeln. Sie kaufen hier so viel Sklaven, als sie können, und führen sie nach St. Domingo oder Kachao, von wannen sie dieselben nach Brasilien übersenden, wo sie einen guthen Werth haben. … Was die alten Einwohner dieses Landes betraf: so konnte der Verfasser diese besondere Umstände erfahren. … Sie sind meistentheils Götzendiener. Einige bethen den Mond an, und andere den Teufel, welchen sie Kammate (Siehe Jannequins Reise in unserm II Bande a. d. 289 S.) nennen. Wenn man sie fraget: warum sie den Teufel anbethen? so antworten sie: weil er ihnen Schaden tue, Gott aber nicht. Es sind auch einige Muhammedaner unter ihnen.« [6-151] [6-152]
The role of the crocodile
Now that we have a better understanding of West African beliefs, let us turn to an important being: It is the crocodile. Why this is so important, we will tell you in the next part of this series.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voodoo Voodoo.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Barbadians Afro-Barbadians.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=lctgDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=what+did+barbadian+slaves+drink&source=bl&ots=YRh-RAk1PC&sig=ACfU3U1MDSftjSq_Y–06tfiLvvxOCsxJw&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj8zqHXm7jqAhXN2KQKHWkACBgQ6AEwC3oECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=what%20did%20barbadian%20slaves%20drink&f=false Richard Ligon: A True and Exact History of the Islands of Barbados. Edited, with an introduction, by Karen Ordahl Kupperman. ISBN 978-1-60384-621-9 Hackett Publishing, 2011.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=ANm5BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1163&lpg=PA1163&dq=what+did+barbadian+slaves+drink&source=bl&ots=–BgFcp98B&sig=ACfU3U3b8qNTQeK8fVHSyKfR7ti-bOHhtA&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj8zqHXm7jqAhXN2KQKHWkACBgQ6AEwDXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=what%20did%20barbadian%20slaves%20drink&f=false Scott C. Martin (Hrsg.): The SAGE Encyclopedia of Alcohol: Social, Cultural and Historical Perspectives. SAGE Publications, 2014.
- https://books.google.de/books?id=5A1YAAAAcAAJ&pg=PT3&dq=%22bumbo%22+%22benin%22&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjkmP3Tu7rqAhXDzqQKHawFAZUQ6AEwAHoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=%22bumbo%22&f=false Anonymus: Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande; oder Sammlung aller Reisebeschreibungen, welche bis itzo in verschiedenen Sprachen von allen Völkern herausgegeben worden, und einen vollständigen Begriff von den neueren Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte machen; Worinnen der wirkliche Zustand aller nationen vorgestellet, und das merkwürdigste, Nützlichste und Wahrhaftigste in Europa, Asia, Africa und America, in Ansehung ihrer verschiedenen Reiche und Länder; deren Lage, Größe, Gränzen, Eintheilungen, Himmelsgegenden, Erdreichs, Früchte, Thiere, Flüsse, Seen, Gebirge, großen und kleinen Städte, Häfen, Gebäude, u.s.w. wie auch der Sitten und Gebräuche der Einwohner, ihrer Religion, Regierungsart, Künste und Wissenschaften, Handlung und Manufacturen, enthalten ist; Mit nöthigen Landkarten nach den neuesten und richtigsten astronomischen Wahrnehmungen, und mancherley Abbildungen der Städte, Küsten, Aussichten, Thiere, Gewächse, Kleidungen, und anderer dergleichen Merkwürdigkeiten, versehen; Durch eine Gesellschaft gelehrter Männer im Englischen zusammen getragen, und aus demselben ins Deutsche übersetzt. Vierter Band. Leipzig, 1749.
- https://archive.org/details/gri_allgemeinehi03leip/page/n245/mode/2up?q=bumbo Anonymus: Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande; oder Sammlung aller Reisebeschreibungen, welche bis itzo in verschiedenen Sprachen von allen Völkern herausgegeben worden, und einen vollständigen Begriff von den neueren Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte machen; Worinnen der wirkliche Zustand aller nationen vorgestellet, und das merkwürdigste, Nützlichste und Wahrhaftigste in Europa, Asia, Africa und America, in Ansehung ihrer verschiedenen Reiche und Länder; deren Lage, Größe, Gränzen, Eintheilungen, Himmelsgegenden, Erdreichs, Früchte, Thiere, Flüsse, Seen, Gebirge, großen und kleinen Städte, Häfen, Gebäude, u.s.w. wie auch der Sitten und Gebräuche der Einwohner, ihrer Religion, Regierungsart, Künste und Wissenschaften, Handlung und Manufacturen, enthalten ist; Mit nöthigen Landkarten nach den neuesten und richtigsten astronomischen Wahrnehmungen, und mancherley Abbildungen der Städte, Küsten, Aussichten, Thiere, Gewächse, Kleidungen, und anderer dergleichen Merkwürdigkeiten, versehen; Durch eine Gesellschaft gelehrter Männer im Englischen zusammen getragen, und aus demselben ins Deutsche übersetzt. Dritter Band. Leipzig, 1748.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambia Gambia.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacheu_(Stadt) Cacheu (Stadt).
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Domingos_(Guinea-Bissau) São Domingos (Guinea-Bissau).
- https://archive.org/details/b30453549/page/n75/mode/2up?q=devil John Barbot: A description of the coasts of North ans South-Guinea; and of Ethiopia Inferior, vulgarly Angola: beeing a New ans Accurate Account of the Western Maritime Countries of Africa. In Six Books. Containing A Geographical, Political, and Natural History of the Kingdoms, Provinces, Common-Wealths, Territories, and Islands belonging to it. Their Product, Inhabitants, Manners, Languages, Trade, Wars, Policy and Religion. With a full Account of all the European Settlements; their Rise, Progress, and Present Condition; their Commerce, and Measures for improving the several Branches of the Guinea and Angola Trade. Also of Trade-Winds, Breezes, Tornadoes, Harmatans, Tides and Currents &c. And a New Relation of the Province of Guiana, and of the great Rivers of Amazons and Oronoque in South-America. With an Appendix; being a General Account of the First Discoveries of America, in the fourteenth Century, and some Observations thereon. And a Geographical, Political, and Natural History of the Antilles-Islands, in the North-Sea of America. Now first Printed from his Original Manuscript. 1732.
- https://archive.org/details/volatilespiritsh00smit/page/n35/mode/2up?q=%22Negroes+are+in+general+much+addicted+to+drunkenness%22 und https://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/AA/00/02/65/65/00001/volatilespiritsh00smit.pdf Frederick H. Smith: Volatile Spirits: The historical archaeology of alcohol and drinking in the Caribbean. A dissertation presented to the graduate school of the university of Florida in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy. University of Florida, 2001.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados Barbados.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akan Akan.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_(Ethnie) Igbo (Ethnie).
- Eva-Sabine Zehelein: ‘Been to Barbados’: Rum(bullion), race, the gaspée and the American revolution. In: Susanne Schmid & Barbara Schmidt-Haberkamp (Hrsg.): Drink in the Eighteent and Nineteenth Centuries. Perspectives in Economic and Social History, Number 29. ISBN 978-1-138-66301-5. 2014.
- https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/history-in-africa/article/abs/jean-barbot-as-a-source-for-the-slave-coast-of-west-africa/F34A357F06C05BC885652E90EC46D572 Robin Law: Jean Barbot as a Source for the Slave Coast of West Afric. Published online by Cambridge University Press, 13 May 2014.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Bosman Willem Bosman.
- https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6nigreich_Dahomey Königreich Dahomey.