Drinks

Punch, Toddy, Grog & Co. – Part 9: Skin

Columbia Skin - Titelbild.

What actually is a skin? There are different variations, and even Jerry Thomas and Harry Johnson contradict each other in the definition of a skin. To understand the Columbia Skin, it is necessary to study the history of US rum production and the American War of Independence, because the Columbia Skin is a patriotic drink. Learn more about it in this post.

Alexander Marjoribanks: Travels to South and North America. London, 1853, page 398.
Alexander Marjoribanks: Travels to South and North America. London, 1853, page 398. [1-398]

Before we turn to the recipes handed down in bar books, let us first see what even older documents know about the skin. A report on the voyages to America from the year 1853 reports: “Brandy cocktail is composed of brandy, sugar, stoughton, or other bitters, and lemon peel. Brandy skin consists of brandy, sugar, and lemon skins.” [1-398]

This is a very important text, because it tells not only what a skin is made of, but also where it gets its name from, namely from the added lemon zest.

John S. Farmer & W. E. Henley: A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English. London, 1905, page 416.
John S. Farmer & W. E. Henley: A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English. London, 1905, page 416. [2-416]

In 1905 a book on colloquial English was published, and in it a skin is described as  “Punch made in the glass: as a whisky-skin, a rum-skin, etc.” [2-416]

 

Thomas Ford: A Peep Behind the Courtain. Boston, 1850, page 15.
Thomas Ford: A Peep Behind the Courtain. Boston, 1850, page 15. [3-15]

A book published in Boston in 1850 reports that English actors performed in Boston, and that the skin could be enjoyed both hot and cold: “The representatives of Shakespeare’s heroines have been seen measuring tape and ribbons, at a very small profit; and the personifier of Polonius has been hear meekly inquiring of a cab-driver, whether he prefered his “whiskey-skin” hot or cold;[3-15]

How long has the skin been known?

The skin seems to have been known in the 1840s at the latest. The article from 1853 already cited is the oldest we have found for a brandy skin. [1-398]

L'univers ilustré. Journal bi-hebdomadaire. Paris, 1866, page 698.
L’univers ilustré. Journal bi-hebdomadaire. Paris, 1866, page 698. [4-698]

We first found the gin skin in a French magazine from 1866. It mentions the Americans’ love of “cocktail, dog’s nose, gin-sling, gin-skin, mint julep, brandy-smash und thunder and lightning”. [4-698]

John S. Farmer & W. E. Henley: A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English. London, 1905, page 416.
John S. Farmer & W. E. Henley: A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English. London, 1905, page 416. [2-416]

The oldest reference to a rum skin is in the 1905 article already cited. [2-416]

William Starbuck Mayo: Kaloolah. London, 1849, page 92.
William Starbuck Mayo: Kaloolah. London, 1849, page 92. [5-92]

The oldest reference to the whiskey skin dates back to 1849. [5-92]

It is safe to assume that the skin was already popular and widely known in the 1850s. It is regularly mentioned in newspapers. Perhaps the following quotations should be highlighted:

Charles Mackay: Life and liberty in America. New York, 1859, page 34.
Charles Mackay: Life and liberty in America. New York, 1859, page 34. [6-34]

In 1859 it says: “To all the hotels is attached an establishment known as the “bar,” where spirituous liquors are retailed under a nomenclature that puzzles the stranger, and takes a long acquaintanceship with American life and manners to become familiar with. Gin-sling, brandy-smash, whisky-skin, streak of lightning, cock-tail, and rum-salad, are but a few of the names of the drinks which are consumed at the bar, morning, noon, and night, by persons who in a similar rank of life in England would no more think of going to a gin-shop than of robbing a bank.[6-34]

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 29. December 1855, page 2.
The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 29. December 1855, page 2. [7]

Skin was seen as something healthy, as we can see from the Brooklyn Daily Eagle of 1855: “It is said that the next best method of bidding defiance to the cold, after putting on a well-lined overcoat, is to heat up the interior with a “whiskey skin.” The efficacious beverages of this description are to be had at the store of Mr. HYNE’S, corner of Hudson avenue and John st.[7]

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3. January 1854, page 3.
The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3. January 1854, page 3. [8]

The Skins must have been popular, because you read about the New Year celebration the year before: “During the early hours the porter houses kept open doors, and “smashers” and “whiskey skins” were in extraordinary demand until shutting up time, when the working of the spirit began to manifest itself about the streets.” [8]

Where did the skin get its name from?

We think that we can assume without doubt that the skin got its name from the lemon zest used, as the quotation from 1853 suggests:  „”Brandy skin consists of brandy, sugar, and lemon skins.[1-398]

David Wondrich gives another interpretation. First of all, he writes that a whiskey skin is nothing more than a hot toddy with a lemon zest in it. As our analysis will show, this is not true. A skin contains no sugar, and is accordingly not a hot toddy with a lemon zest, but a hot grog with a lemon zest. He further writes that the term first appeared in the Brooklyn Eagle in 1850. Unfortunately, he does not quote more precisely, and we have not yet found the newspaper article. David Wondrich argues that the skin was certainly of Irish origin, and a small version of the almost lemon-less punch that was popular in Ireland. He does not substantiate this statement further. Again, we would like to object: A skin is not a punch. We therefore consider the reference to Ireland to be incomprehensible without further evidence. [34-179]

Analysis of the recipes

Looking at the recipe collections, it is noticeable that there seem to be two different representatives from the category of Skins: Skin and Columbia Skin. We examine both separately to understand what they each are and how they differ.

Skin

So how does it look when you look statistically at the recipes that have been handed down? Does a skin really consist of a spirit, sugar and lemon peel, as the oldest sources suggest?

To answer this question, we searched the historical books for recipes prepared with either whiskey or rum. The reason for this restriction is that we want to compare the skin with other drinks, for example Punch, Grog, Toddy, Sangaree or Sling, for which we had also restricted ourselves to these two basic spirits. However, the authors agree in principle that you can prepare a skin with any spirit.

There are many different recipe variations for a skin. In the following diagram, let us first look at only those that make up more than five percent of the total number of recipes:

Skin - recipe variants.
Skin – recipe variants.

The oldest recipes say that for a skin, one should fill a spirit and a lemon zest with hot water. Later, sugar is optionally added in solid form or as sugar syrup. One variation is to stir a spirit with lemon and strawberry syrup over ice and then strain it. However, this variant only appears statistically so often mainly because of numerous editions of the same book. For the answer to our question of what a skin actually is, this variant may therefore be given less weight. What is not visible in the diagram, but should be mentioned, is the frequency of occurrence in books. Especially in more recent publications, the skin is mentioned less and less. From 1960 onwards, it is practically non-existent, being mentioned only twice.

Let us now take a look at all the ingredients mentioned, this time considering all the recipes:

Skin - ingredients.
Skin – ingredients.

This diagram shows once again that a skin must be prepared with hot water in about 80 percent of the cases. Often a piece of lemon or lemon juice is used, but lemon zest can be considered the standard. Optionally, you can sweeten it with a little sugar. This should certainly be done, especially when using lemon juice, to balance the acidity. As for the use of strawberry syrup or raspberry juice, we have already pointed out that this does not seem to be representative and should therefore be largely ignored. The use of orange bitters is interesting, especially after 1942, but as can be seen, this is probably only a short-term fad. Statistically, however, an additional bitter has no place in a skin. Nor is a skin further garnished, and nutmeg is generally not used in it.

As in the already described categories of Punch, Grog and Toddy, there are inaccuracies in the recipes that have been handed down. There are numerous Skin recipes that do not describe a Skin at all, but a Punch, or something else entirely. The following diagram provides information about this:

Skin - overview.
Skin – overview.

Taking this into account, we must conclude that a skin can only be prepared in one way, namely as a spirit infused with hot water together with a lemon zest. According to our nomenclature, this is a:

  • Classic Plain Skin (distillate, water, zest)

One thing needs to be clarified: We were looking for recipes for a whiskey skin and rum skin. You can find all kinds of variations, with American, Scotch or Irish whiskey. Rum, interestingly, is not represented. The reason is that a rum skin was obviously not called a rum skin, but a Columbia skin. This is not the only reason why we have to consider this one separately, because it differs substantially from a normal skin. And this is where things get interesting.

Der Columbia Skin

In order to understand the Columbia Skin, it is first necessary to take a closer look at the history of American rum.

Nordamerikanischer Rum

Distillation in the North American colonies began around 1640, in Staten Island, now one of the boroughs of New York City. But grain was scarce, so they started using molasses, a waste product from the production of sugar from sugar cane. [11-96] This could be obtained cheaply from the West Indies. It was sold from the sugar cane plantations there, for example from the British colony of Jamaica. [11-97]

The first reference to a rum distillery dates back to 1684, when rum was produced in Rhode Island. In neighbouring Massachusetts, Boston, with its large merchant fleet, quickly became the centre of the rum industry. In 1688, 156000 gallons of molasses were imported into Massachusetts within six months. About half of this was distilled into rum, the other half was used as a sweetener. [11-97]

In 1750, around 25 rum distilleries were operating in Boston. There were at least ten more in other towns on Massachusetts Bay. But people were also active in other colonies. There were 20 distilleries in Rhode Island, 17 in New York, 14 in Philadelphia, 3 in New Hampshire, 5 in Connecticut, 4 in Maryland. In the southern colonies, on the other hand, there were only four rum distilleries, because tobacco cultivation was predominant there. [11-98]

In 1763, there were an estimated 159 rum distilleries in New England, [12] the area in the north-east of the USA which, along with Virginia, was the origin of British settlement in North America and which comprises the present-day states of Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont.

In 1770, North America was already importing 6.5 million gallons of molasses, from which about five million gallons of rum were distilled. The rum from New England was cheaper and of lower quality than that from the West Indies. It cost only half to two-thirds of the latter. [11-98]

Rum was one of the first mass-produced products in America. In the 1770s, more than half of the rum consumed in the northern colonies was distilled locally. Rum distillation was the second most important industry after shipbuilding. [11-96]

The import of molasses

In the 18th century, distillers could buy molasses from a number of different sugar cane plantations in the West Indies. There were British, Dutch and Spanish establishments there. [11-102] At the end of the 17th century, molasses from the Dutch Surinam was preferred, and people then switched to buying French molasses because it was cheap to obtain. The reason for this was that although the British had been quicker to establish sugar cane plantations, the French quickly caught up. Their sugar production had soared by 1720, and by the time of the American Revolution, the French colony of Haiti alone produced more sugar than all the British islands put together. The molasses, however, could not be shipped to France because the French vintners and brandy producers blocked the import of both molasses and rum, fearing that a cheap alcohol would eliminate their liquor monopoly. For this reason, French molasses was available for practically nothing. They were happy to get rid of it. Thus began a trade between New England and the French islands. [11-102] This can be seen in the import figures. In 1688 Boston was still importing 156000 gallons of molasses from British Isles. The rum industry grew rapidly, but by 1716 only 72000 gallons of British molasses were imported. The rest was undoubtedly sourced from the French colonies. This was not unique to Boston, and New York, for example, is reported to have sourced all its urban distilleries’ molasses from Martinique. [11-102]

The Molasses Act

This state of affairs caused disgruntlement among the British sugar cane planters. Another affront to them was that New England traders did not accept British molasses as a commodity. All this contradicted the claim that colonies should only trade for the benefit of the colonial power. American ships, on the other hand, called at French ports to load molasses, which was then used to make rum that could be exchanged for other non-British goods. Britain was left empty-handed. Finally, British merchants and especially sugar cane planters from Barbados and Antigua demanded that the British Parliament pass laws to protect them by prohibiting trade with France. However, this request did not find a majority. Instead, the so-called Molasses Act was passed in 1733. This in turn did not please the North American merchants, because established trade routes were hindered. They were still allowed to purchase French molasses, but this came with high duties. This made French molasses far more expensive than British. The import of French rum was completely banned. There were only two options for the North Americans: open rebellion or smuggling. They chose the latter and ignored the Molasses Act. French molasses continued to enter North America, distilled into rum and traded. Two years after the decree, in 1735, a total of only £2 in duties had accrued. More was not declared. [11-103] Over the next 30 years, only £1,3702 in duty was paid on half a million gallons of molasses officially imported. Meanwhile, corrupt British customs officers simply declared French molasses as British. This was still cheaper for the traders than paying duties. [11-104] Rum distillation in New England grew and prospered, and the planters of the British sugar islands continued to seethe with rage [11-104]

The Seven Years’ War

The Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763 was fought not only in Europe, but also in India and the New World. Some historians therefore call it a world war. England and France were at war with each other. As a result, the merchants of New England no longer touched directly at the French ports, but at free ports such as in the Dutch colony of St. Eustatius or the Spanish Monte Christi. This state of affairs did not last long, however. The British occupied Guadeloupe from 1759 to 1763 and Martinique from 1762 to 1763. Now North American merchants could once again sail directly to these islands. They could trade legally with the French while avoiding heavy duties and smuggling. [11-104] [14] [15] [16] This state of affairs lasted only a short time, however, because after the war ended the islands became French again. This is surprising at first sight, but it was due to the influence of the British sugar barons. Canada had become British and they wanted to avoid an oversupply of sugar there, in other British colonies and in the markets of London. They did not want any additional competition. This was the only way they could secure their monopoly, keep prices under control and supply Canada alone. [11-104]

The Sugar Act

So the North Americans started smuggling French molasses again. This did not sit well with the British Crown. They had been through an expensive war, the treasury was empty, the Crown’s debts had almost doubled, and they had to cope with increased expenses in the colonies. Moreover, it was felt that the North Americans were the main winners of the war, as they now had no French invasion from the north to fear . [11-105] [17] [18] It was felt that the colonies should therefore pay more. The Molasses Act was therefore replaced by the Sugar Act. The former was intended to make trade between the colonies more difficult, but the latter was intended to increase revenue. The Sugar Act of 1764 therefore reduced the duty on imported molasses from 6 to 3 pence per gallon and every effort was made to enforce this remission, even with the help of the military. 27 ships monitored compliance with the decree and customs officers who did not show sufficient commitment were removed. Smuggling molasses became more difficult. [11-105] This created resentment in the North American colonies because it meant less profit. For example, in 1763 only 3% of the molasses imported into Massachusetts came from British colonies, and in Rhode Island less than 20% was obtained from there. Some even believed that it would have been better if the war had continued than if the Sugar Act had been passed. [11-106]

Because of the additional tax burden or the higher expenses for contraband, some rum distilleries had to close down. The Sugar Act was perceived as a great injustice. It was also blamed on the rich and arrogant sugar cane growers of the British West Indies. Meetings were held in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. These petitioned and circulated pamphlets. It was argued that without cheap molasses, the rum distilleries of New England would have to close. The resulting lack of revenue from the rum trade would mean that people would have to start making things themselves instead of importing them, which would then reduce the income of British manufacturers and merchants. Therefore, the Sugar Act was amended in 1766 and the duty on molasses dropped to 1 penny per gallon. This meant that smuggling was no longer lucrative, it became too expensive. [11-107]

Additional levies

This change prevented open resistance or even rebellion. Nevertheless, it had gone too far. The colonists had rallied and organised themselves against the British for the first time and offered initial resistance. Fearing that the colonists might see the Sugar Act amendment as a victory and thus encourage them to resist further, Britain decided to introduce other taxes instead. A tax on tea was introduced, and the Stamp Act imposed duties on all printed matter. This affected not only New England, but all the North American colonies. As a result, even the colonies that had not been affected so far began to organise against the British. “No taxation without representation” was the demand. People began to boycott British products. This led to the Boston Tea Party, an act of resistance in Boston harbour in 1773, in which 342 chests of tea were thrown into the harbour basin from East India Company ships anchored there. [11-108] [18] Finally, the American War of Independence took place from 1775 to 1783, followed by the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the birth of the United States. [11-108] [19] Rum distillers and rum merchants overwhelmingly supported the independence effort. During the war, the supply of molasses was hampered and rum was scarce, but it was needed for one’s army. It was as necessary as black powder or cured pork. In the American navy, half a pint of rum was issued per man per day, and more on special occasions. The foot soldiers also received their rum. [11-109]

Medford Rum and Paul Revere

Medford was founded in 1630, making it the fourth oldest community in Massachusetts. Of the rum distilleries that sprang up around Boston, those located in Medford were the best known. [11-99] The first rum distillery was established there between 1715 and 1720 by John Hall near a spring. Later there were half a dozen distilleries in the town. The rum from Medford became famous because it was of superior quality compared to the other rums from New England. That is why Medford rum is often called for in historical recipes. [11-100] This was matured in wooden barrels. The most appreciated Medford rum was the one produced by the Lawrence family. [11-101]

Paul Revere is one of the American national heroes and was a message courier for the Boston Patriots at the outbreak of the War of Independence. On 18 April 1775, he and two other horsemen undertook the famous midnight ride from Boston to Lexington and Concord to warn their inhabitants of the approaching British troops. [13] It is said that he drank a glass of Medford rum on his midnight ride, which also took him through Medford. [11-101]

Columbia

Having looked at the history of rum and its influence on the American Revolution, we must next look at the name Columbia Skin. Who or what is Columbia?

Columbia, 1861.
Columbia, 1861. [28]

Already in Roman times, Britain was symbolised by Britannia and Germany by Germania. Since the 1730s, the thirteen British colonies of North America have been symbolised by Columbia. Its name originated with reference to Christopher Columbus. [9] [10] [20] [21] In the 19th century in particular, Columbia was considered a godlike national personification of the United States. However, it was supplanted around 1920 by the Statue of Liberty, erected in 1886. [9] The official designation of Washington, the capital of the United States, is District of Columbia. [10]

So what is a Columbia skin?

If you take this as a basis, it explains what a Columbia skin is. It is a skin prepared in the American way, more precisely in the way of the original British colonies in North America. It is something patriotic. It is prepared with a patriotic American spirit. Given the crucial role that rum played in the independence movement, it is clear that a Columbia Skin can only be made patriotically with a New England rum.

That is our opinion, and also that of Harry Johnson. He published his recipe for a Columbia Skin in 1888 and stated: “The drink is drunk chiefly in Boston and vicinity under these names.” – „Das Getränk wird hauptsächlich in Boston und Umgegend unter diesen Namen getrunken.“ In the new edition of his book in 1900, he is even more specific. According to him, it is not rum but Medford rum that is to be used in Columbia Skin. The thing is that in his book he is very specific about which rum to use in which recipe. Jamaica Rum is mentioned 26 times, St. Croix Rum twelve times, Rum twice and English Rum once. Medford Rum is mentioned only four times, in Medford Rum Sour, Medford Rum Smash, Medford Rum Punch and in Columbia Skin. He writes beyond: “Bartenders must understand that these prescriptions for mixed drinks are strictly and exclusively first-class; therefore, if a bartender works in a place which is not first-class, and is not getting a high price for his drinks, he must use his own judgment about the ingredients, in order not to sell his drinks without profit. For instance where I say brandy in this mixed drink, whiskey would have to be taken in place of it, and where the prescription calls for St. Croix rum, take Medford rum, etc.” [26-179] [26-180]

So if he specifically calls for the lesser quality and cheaper Medford Rum in the Columbia Skin, it is because it is there specifically to be used.

Jerry Thomas disagrees. In his book published in 1862, he states for the Columbia Skin: “This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a whiskey skin.” Unfortunately, there is no whiskey skin in his book, only a Scotch Whiskey Skin. But let’s assume that by a Columbia skin he meant a skin made with American whiskey. Anything else would make no sense.

How do these two points of view fit together? First of all, one must clearly side with Harry Johnson. He can be shown to have worked in Boston [22-32] and must therefore have been very familiar with local customs. A Columbia skin, a Boston speciality, is to be made with New England rum. But rum was mostly distilled in the northern colonies. In the southern ones it was whiskey. In the late 18th century, Pennsylvania was the centre of rye whiskey production. Kentucky was originally part of Virginia, and there the distillation of whiskey was probably spread by the Scots in the late 18th century. [24] [25] Israel Acrelius confirms this. In 1759 he wrote in his “History of New Sweden”:  “Whisky is brandy made of grain. It is used far up in the interior of the country, where rum is very dear on account of the transportation.[32-163] [33]

If one wanted to drink a “patriotic skin” there, it is obvious that one would switch to American whiskey instead of using a rum from New England. But strictly speaking, this is not the right ingredient for a Columbia skin.

Alternative derivations

However, there are other stories about the origin of the name “Columbia Skin”. In 1935, Albert Stevens Crocket wrote: “Called after the prowess Columbia had exhibited in a certain boat race with Cornell, and first composed upon the demand of a Columbia “fan” for a new drink that would properly commemorate the occasion.[31-87]

He refers to the Columbia-Cornell-Pennyslvania Boat Race, a competition between different universities. These competitions first began between the teams of the Detroit Boat Club, founded in 1839, and the Boat Club of Yale University, founded in 1843. Harvard University joined in 1846. The first race between Harvard and Yale took place in 1852. Until 1872, only four universities took part in the race. By 1872 there were more, and by 1875 twelve different universities were participating, including Cornell and Columbia. [30] This means that the Columbia Skin – should Albert Stevens Crockett’s explanation be correct – could not have been created before 1872 or 1875. But since Jerry Thomas already knows the Columbia Skin in 1862, this means that the explanation cannot be correct. At that time there were no boat races between Columbia and Cornell.

What is a Columbia Skin?

As we can see, there are two different schools, that of Jerry Thomas and that of Harry Johnson. Their recipes are very different from each other.

For Jerry Thomas, a Columbia Skin is made with (American?) whiskey, lemon zest and hot water. In more recent editions of his book, you may also add sugar. Apart from the sugar, this corresponds to the general definition of a skin that we have already shown.

For Harry Johnson it is something different. (Medford) Rum and sugar dissolved in a little water are mixed well with a lemon wedge and ice, then sprinkled with a little nutmeg and served with ice: : “(Use a small bar glass.) 1 tea-spoonful of sugar, dissolve well with a little water; 1 slice of Lemon; 2 or 3 pieces of broken ice; 1 wine glass of rum; stir up well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on top and serve. This drink is called Columbia Skin by the Boston people.[29-89]

What we unfortunately do not know is the answer to the question of how long Columbia Skin has existed, and whether Harry Johnson’s recipe is a further development of it, using a lemon wedge and nutmeg. But this question will probably never be answered.

For the above reasons, we agree with Harry Johnson. But what do the statistics say about the Columbia Skin? Do the other authors see it the same way?

Columbia Skin - spirits.
Columbia Skin – spirits.

In the beginning, only whiskey appears statistically – this is due to Jerry Thomas’ recipe. Then, from 1882, rum is used more and more. So we can definitely state that – as already explained in detail – a Columbia Skin should contain rum. Of course, the Skin can also be made with a rye or bourbon, but then it is no longer a Columbia Skin, but a Rye or Bourbon Skin, for the reasons we have explained.

Columbia Skin - ice.
Columbia Skin – ice.

As you can see, you can definitely serve a Columbia Skin with hot water or with ice. Surprisingly, the two have remained almost constant throughout the ages. But let’s remember that already around 1850 a Skin was served both hot and cold.

Columbia Skin - recipe variants.
Columbia Skin – recipe variants.

The question of which recipe to use is an exciting one. Of course, the one published by Harry Johnson is to be preferred. But as you can see, his combination of lemon pieces, sugar, ice and nutmeg is clearly in the minority. If we disregard the “other” recipes, the alternative preparation is identical to that of a normal Skin, namely with a lemon zest, hot water and optional sugar and without spices.

From our point of view, this is not a contradiction. As we have found, a Skin is usually prepared with hot water. For a Columbia Skin, you then simply have to use a Medford rum. In the case of the Columbia Skin, it turns out that it can very well be served with ice, so why not. Harry Johnson also follows this option, except that he uses a piece of lemon instead of a lemon zest and adds some nutmeg. This is still acceptable, and besides, this is exactly how skin was prepared in Boston. They liked it a bit more lemony there.

But what should we make of the other recipes that are not listed separately in the diagram? In principle, they all follow the formula of a skin, only they are modified with further ingredients. Basically, they use a lemon zest, a piece of lemon or even lemon juice. They are served with ice or hot water. Optionally, sugar is added. The additions are then things like some curaçao or orange bitters, you might pour in some soda water, or garnish not only with nutmeg like Harry Johnsson, but expand the possibilities with cinnamon, cloves, ginger, pepper or cayenne pepper. The following diagram shows this clearly:

Columbia Skin - ingredients.
Columbia Skin – ingredients.

So we can conclude: A Columbia Skin is a Skin made with New England rum, consisting of rum, lemon zest and hot water. If you serve a Columbia Skin on ice, you can follow Harry Johnson and use a piece of lemon instead of the lemon zest and garnish it with a little nutmeg. However, despite the name, this mixture is no longer a Skin, but corresponds to a Punch.

Columbia Skin - overview.
Columbia Skin – overview.

If we look at the recipes for a Columbia Skin in general, this becomes equally clear. Initially a Classic Plain Skin, the custom of preparing it as a Punch (which means the drink is no longer a Skin, despite its name) then prevails. Sometimes the recipes are also that of a Grog, or something else.

Medford Rum

Unfortunately, the original Medford Rum is no longer available today. The last distillery in Medford closed in 1905 [11-112] How did it taste? Can it be replaced by another rum? We found a post on the internet about what a 128 year old bottle of Medford Rum, bottled in 1892, tasted like. The notes state:

“Given the early clues from passing the cork and the glass, it was not a surprise but was a welcome confirmation that the rum was not only still drinkable, it was fantastic! Dates, butter, spearmint, honey, copper, apple butter, citrus peel, and bananas. It was surreal knowing that what was in the glass had been distilled over a century earlier, and there was not a single “off-note” present. Nothing to detract from a beautiful, rich, slightly sweet but dry, long aged rum full of the flavors rum is best known for.” [27]

“The Old Medford rum turned out to be better than anyone expected. … The rum itself was astounding. No firm metrics, but it seemed well aged (someone said to be ‘Old’ Medford it had to be at least 4 years) and cask strength. Maybe around 110-120 proof? Very dark in color. Deep brown with a reddish hint. No funk at all. Hot rich, sweet, a little spicy. Like a very old El Dorado without that slight note of being overoaked. There was a definite note of sweetness from something. My thought was maybe they added molasses back in after distillation (or aged in an ‘ex-molasses’ barrel), but some thought it could’ve been a sherry finish. Very rich and maybe a bit… spicier, but the closest contemporary rum I could think of would be like a really nice Guyana rum. Or between a Barbados and a Guyana rum. Somehow reminded me of the Plantation Extreme No. 3 or one of the old Caronis. That sort of chewy / thick / dehydrated note you can get in forgotten rum (maybe from losing volume in the bottle?)“ [27]

According to these statements, a good, matured Guyana rum, for example, seems to be a suitable product to make a Columbia Skin with. It would now be interesting to compare a modern “Medford” rum with it. Perhaps one of our readers has already tasted it and can say whether it tastes similar today?The next post in this series will be about the Negus. What is it and how does it differ from the other categories?

Sources
  1. https://archive.org/details/travelsinsouthno00marj/page/398/mode/2up?q=skin Alexander Marjoribanks: Travels to South and North America. London, Simkin, Marshall, and Company; New York, Appleton and Co., 1853.
  2. https://archive.org/details/dictionaryofslan00farmuoft/page/416/mode/2up/search/%22rum+skin%22?q=%22rum+skin%22 John S. Farmer & W. E. Henley: A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English. London: George Routledge & Sons, Limited; New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1905.
  3. https://archive.org/details/peepbehindcurtai00forduoft/page/14/mode/2up/search/%22whiskey+skin%22?q=%22whiskey+skin%22 Anonymus (Thomas Ford): A Peep Behind the Courtain. Boston, Redding & Company, 1850.
  4. https://archive.org/details/gri_33125010710255/page/n287/mode/2up/search/gin+skin?q=gin+skin L’univers ilustré. Journal bi-hebdomadaire. Paris, 1866.
  5. https://archive.org/details/b2931463x/page/92/mode/2up/search/whiskey+skin?q=whiskey+skin William Starbuck Mayo: Kaloolah, or, journeyings to the Djébel Kumri: an autobiography of Jonathan Romer. London, 1849.
  6. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=aeu.ark:/13960/t7qn70f5p&view=1up&seq=39 Charles Mackay: Life and liberty in America: Or, Sketches of a tour in the United States and Canada in 1857-8. New York, 1859.
  7. https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/50600099/?terms=%22whiskey%2Bskin%22 The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 29. December 1855, page 2.
  8. https://bklyn.newspapers.com/image/50347450/?terms=%22whiskey%2Bskin%22 The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3. January 1854, page 3.
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_(name) Columbia (name).
  10. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C.
  11. Wayne Curtis: And a bottle of rum. A history of the new world in ten cocktails. ISBN 978-0-307-33862-4. New York, 2007.
  12. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuengland Neuengland.
  13. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Revere_(Freiheitsk%C3%A4mpfer) Paul Revere (Freiheitskämpfer).
  14. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siebenj%C3%A4hriger_Krieg Siebenjähriger Krieg.
  15. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martinique Martinique.
  16. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guadeloupe Guadeloupe.
  17. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siebenj%C3%A4hriger_Krieg_in_Nordamerika Siebenjähriger Krieg in Nordamerika.
  18. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Tea_Party Boston Tea Party.
  19. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amerikanischer_Unabh%C3%A4ngigkeitskrieg Amerikanischer Unabhängigkeitskrieg.
  20. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Britannia_(Personifikation) Britannia (Personifikation).
  21. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germania_(Personifikation) Germania (Personifikation).
  22. Anistatia Miller & Jarred Brown: The Deans of Drink. ISBN 978-1-907434-38-9. 2013.
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rye_whiskey Rye whiskey.
  24. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky Kentucky.
  25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bourbon_whiskey Bourbon whiskey.
  26. Harry Johnson: The New and Improved Illustrated Bartenders‘ Manual or: How to Mix Drinks of the Present Style, Containing Valuable Instructions and Hints by the Author in Reference to the Management of a Bar, a Hotel and a Restaurant; also a Large List of Mixed Drinks, including American, British, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, etc., with Illustrations and a Comprehensive Description of Bar Utensils, Wines, Liquors, Ales, Mixtures, etc., etc. Revised Edition. New York City, 1900.
  27. https://www.americanrumreport.com/blog/american-rum-report-24 What does an 1892 bottle of Old Medford Rum taste like? In: American Rum Report #24, 14. February 2020.
  28. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_spirit_of_61._God,_our_country_and_liberty!!_LCCN2003674564.jpg Columbia.
  29. Harry Johnson: New and Improved Illustrated Bartender’s Manual or: How to Mix Drinks of the Present Style And Containing a Valuable List of Instructions and Hints By the Author in Reference to Attending Bar: Also a Large List of Mixed Drinks, Such as American, British, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Etc., Etc., With Illustrations, And a Complete List of Bar Utensils, Wines, Liquors, Ales, Mixtures, Etc., Etc. Ab Seite 103: Neues und Verbessertes Illustriertes Handbuch für Bartender, oder: Wie man Getränke mischt, enthaltend Practische Regeln, Winke und Anweisungen über sämmtliche Bedürfnisse, gründliche Belehrung über alle Einzelheiten des Geschäfts, vollkommene und correcte Rezepte aller gemischten Getränke der Jetztzeit die in Amerika, England, Deutschland, Frankreich, Italien, Russland, Spanien und anderen Ländern beliebt sind, sowie Listen sämmtlicher Bar-Utensilien, Anweisungen zur richtigen Behandlung von Liqueuren, Weine Bier, Ale und Porter in Fässern und Flaschen. New York, Eigenverlag, 1888.
  30. https://books.google.de/books?id=vBqtCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT124&lpg=PT124&dq=boatrace+columbia+cornell&source=bl&ots=cYP8Ga65W7&sig=ACfU3U2YTVRk9oKSPn9BAMkA8DhHUwWo-A&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiF5Lzu9N3pAhVNXpoKHdaOAV8Q6AEwBHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=boatrace%20columbia%20cornell&f=false R. C. Lehmann: The Classic Guide to Rowing. ISBN 9781445649061. 2016.
  31. Albert Stevens Crockett: The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book. With Amendments due to Repeal of the XVIIIth. Giving the Correct Recipes for Five Hundred Cocktails and Mixed Drinks known and served at the Wolrd’s Most Famous Brass Rail before Prohibition, together with More than One Hundred Established Formulas for Cocktails and Other Beverages, Originated while Prohibition was in Effect. The Whole Flavored with Dashes of History Mixed in a Shaker of Anecdote and Served with a Chaser of Illuminative Information. New York, 1935.
  32. https://archive.org/details/historyofnewswed00acre/page/162/mode/2up/search/grain Israel Acrelius: A history of New Sweden; or, the settlements on the river Delaware. Philadelphia, 1874.
  33. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_Acrelius Israel Acrelius.
  34. David Wonrich: Imbibe! 2. edition. ISBN 978-0-399-53287-0. 2015.

Historical recipes

1862 Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 79. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1862 Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 79. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1862 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 79. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1862 Jerry Thomas: The Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 79. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1864 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 79. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1864 Jerry Thomas: The Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 79. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1869 Anonymus: Haney’s Steward & Barkeeper’s Manual. Seite 36. Whisky Skin.

One and a half wine glasses of Scotch or Irish whisky;
one thin piece of lemon peel. Fill the tumbler half full of
boiling water.

1871 E. Ricket & C. Thomas: The Gentleman’s Table Guide. Seite 41. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

USE a small tumbler. Wineglass of whiskey,
1 piece of lemon peel; fill up with boiling
water.

1872 E. Ricket & C. Thomas: The Gentleman’s Table Guide. Seite 41. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

USE a small tumbler. Wineglass of whiskey,
1 piece of lemon peel; fill up with boiling
water.

1875 Anonymus: The American Bar-Tender. Seite 13. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Small Glass. — 1 glass of Scotch Whiskey, 2 tea spoonfuls of
sugar, 1 piece of lemon peel.

1876 Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 79. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1876 Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 79. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1876 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 79. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1876 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 79. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1881 Leo Engel: American & Other Drinks. Seite 61. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

One wine glass Scotch whiskey; one piece of lemon peel.
the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1883 Patsy McDonough: McDonough’s Bar-Keepers’ Guide. Seite 32. Whiskey Skin.

Two lumps of cut loaf sugar, one wine-glass of Irish Whiskey, one
wine-glass of boiling water, one piece of lemon peel twisted in.

1884 O. H. Byron: The Modern Bartenders‘ Guide. Seite 60. Columbia Skin.

(Small whisky glass.)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it is,
but is called in Boston by the above name.

1884 O. H. Byron: The Modern Bartender’s Guide. Seite 60. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of lemon
peel on top, and serve.

1885 Emilie Lebour-Fawssett (Bacchus): New Guide for the Hotel, Bar, Restaurant, Butler, and Chef. Seite 144. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Glenlivet Whiskey, 1 Glass.
Lemon Peel, 1 sq. in.
Boiling Water, 1/2 Tumblerful.
Put the boiling water in the tumbler first, then the lemon
peel, then the whiskey.

1885 Emilie Lebour-Fawssett (Bacchus): New Guide for the Hotel, Bar, Restaurant, Butler, and Chef. Seite 144. Boston Skin.

Rye Whiskey, 1 Large Glass.
Lemon Peel, 1 sq. in.
Boiling Water, 1/2 Tumblerful.
Peel,
Put the boiling water in the tumbler first, then the lemon
peel, and then the whiskey.

1885 Emilie Lebour-Fawssett (Bacchus): New Guide for the Hotel, Bar, Restaurant, Butler, and Chef. Seite 144. Bourbon Skin.

Bourbon Whiskey, 1 Glass.
Lemon Rind, 1 sq. in.
Boiling Water, 1/2 Tumblerful.
Mix as above for Boston Skin, &c.

1887 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 26. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting Bourbon whiskey
for brandy.

Seite 25. Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a tea-
spoonful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a
lemon; add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and
half a wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a
lemon (same as an apple) and put in wine glass;
shake well and strain off.

1887 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 60. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting rye whiskey for
brandy.

Seite 25. Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a tea-
spoonful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a
lemon; add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and
half a wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a
lemon (same as an apple) and put in wine glass;
shake well and strain off.

1887 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 52. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar-glass.)
Take 1 lump of white sugar.
1 small wine-glass of Glenlivet, or Islay whiskey
1 small piece of lemon-rind.

1887 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 53. Irish Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar-glass.)
Take 1 lump of white sugar.
1 small wine-glass of Irish whiskey.
1 small piece of lemon-peel.
Proceed as directed for Scotch Whiskey Skin.

1887 Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 53. Columbia Skin.

(Use small bar-glass.)
This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
Whiskey Skin.

1888 Harry Johnson: New and Improved Illustrated Bartender’s Manual. Seite 89. Columbia Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 tea-spoonful of sugar, dissolve well with a little
water;
1 slice of Lemon;
2 or 3 pieces of broken ice;
1 wine glass of rum;
stir up well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on
top and serve.
This drink is called Columbia Skin by the Boston
people.

1888 Harry Johnson: Neues und Verbessertes Illustriertes Handbuch für Bartender. Seite 196. Columbia Skin.

(Gebrauche ein kleines Barglas.)
1 Theeloffel voll Zucker;
löse diesen mit ein wenig Wasser auf;
1 Schnitte Citrone;
2 oder 3 Eisstücke;
1 Weinglas Rum;
mische es gut auf mit einem Barlöffel, streue ein
wenig Muscatnuss darüber und servire. Das Ge-
tränk wird hauptsächlich in Boston und Umgegend
unter diesen Namen getrunken.

1888 Harry Lamore: The Bartender. Seite 52. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

A small whiskey glass.
One wine-glass Scotch whiskey.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of lemon
peel on top and serve.

1889 Anonymus [Jerry Thomas]: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 44. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(Use small bar-glass.)
Take 1 lump of white sugar.
1 small wine-glass of Greer’s Loch Dhu or
Greer’s Old Vatted Highland whisky.
1 small piece of lemon-rind.
First rinse the glass with hot water, put in the
sugar, fill the glass half-full of boiling water, add the
whisky and stir. Serve with a spoon.

1889 Anonymus [Jerry Thomas]: The Bar-Tender’s Guide. Seite 44. Irish Whisky Skin.

(Use small bar-glass.)
Take 1 lump of white sugar.
1 small wine-glass of Kirker Green Shamrock
whisky.
1 small piece of lemon-peel.
Proceed as directed for Scotch Whisky Skin.

1889 Émile Lefeuvre: Méthode pour composer soi-même les boissons. Seite 47. Scotch Whisky Skin.

1 verre à madère de scotch whisky.
1 morceau d’écorce de citron.
Emplir un verre de 25 centilitres d’eau
bouillante et servir.
Cette boisson est un puissant digestif.

1889 Émile Lefeuvre: Méthode pour composer soi-même les boissons. Seite 47. Irish Whisky Skin.

1 verre à madère d’irish wisky.
1 morceau d’écorce de citron.
Emplir un verre de 25 centilitres d’eau
bouillante et servir.
Prendre cette boisson avant de se cou-
cher et la sucrer légèrement selon le
goût.

1889 Émile Lefeuvre: Méthode pour composer soi-même les boissons. Seite 48. Rye Whiskey Skin.

1 verre à madère de rye whiskey.
1 morceau d’écorce de citron.
Emplir un verre de fantaisie et de cou
leur, d’eau bouillante, sucrer selon le goût
agiter et boire très chaud.

1889 Émile Lefeuvre: Méthode pour composer soi-même les boissons. Seite 48. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Le Bourbon Whiskey se sert comme
le précédent.

1891 Anonymus: Wehman’s Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 40. Columbia Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 tea-spoonful of sugar, dissolve well with a little water.
1 slice of Lemon.
2 or 3 pieces of broken ice.
1 wine glass of Rum.
Stir up well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on top and
serve.

1891 Anonymus: Wehman’s Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 54. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 lump of white Sugar.
1 small wine glass of Glenlivet, or Islay Whiskey.
1 small piece of Lemon-rind.
First rinse the glass with hot water, put in the sugar, fill the
glass half full of boiling water, add the whiskey and stir.
Serve with a spoon.

1891 Anonymus: Wehman’s Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 54. Irish Whiskey Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 lump of white Sugar.
1 small wine glass of Irish Whiskey.
1 small piece of Lemon peel.
Proceed as directed for Scotch Whiskey Skin.

1895 Bartenders’ Association of New York City: Official Hand-Book and Guide. Seite 16. Columbia Skin.

(Use small whiskey glass.)
1 wine glass of whiskey.
Fill the glass half full of hot water.
1piece of lemon peel.
Mix with a spoon.

1895 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Prepare in the same manner as Columbia Skin,
using Scotch whiskey.

Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey-glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1895 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Whiskey Skin.

Prepare same as Columbia Skin, the two being
the same, only known by the two different names.

Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey-glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1895 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey-glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1895 R. C. Miller: The American Bar-Tender. Seite 70. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
1 wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1895 R. C. Miller: The American Bar-Tender. Seite 70. Columbia Skin.

(Use small bar glass.)
This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a
whiskey skin.

1896 Louis Fouquet: Bariana. Seite 34. Columbia Skin.

VERRE ROUGE E
Prendre gobelet argent, glace, une cuillerée à café de
sucre poudre, 2 traits de jus de citron, un peu d’eau, finir
avec du rhum, bien frapper, passer, verser, une tranche de
citron et servir.

1899 Niels Larsen: Les Boissons Américaines. Seite 33. Scotch Whisky Skin.

[à préparer dans un verre à grog]
1 verre à madère de scotch whisky;
Remplissez d’eau bouillante.
Ajoutez un zeste de citron et servez.

1900 Frank Newman: American-Bar. Seite 52. Columbia Skin.

Vorre n° 6.
Prendre un gobelet en argent, glace en petits morceaux:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre en poudre,
3 traits jus de citron,
1 cuillerée à café d’eau,
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Frapper, passer, verser, un zeste de citron, servir.

1900 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Prepare in the same manner as Columbia Skin,
using Scotch whiskey.

Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1900 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Whiskey Skin.

Prepare same as Columbia Skin, the two being
the same, only known by the two different names.

Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1900 Harry Johnson: New and Improved Illustrated Bartender’s Manual. Seite 209. Columbia Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 teaspoonful of sugar, dissolve well with a little
water;
1 slice of Lemon;
2 or 3 pieces of broken ice;
1 wine glass of Medford rum;
stir up well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on
top and serve.
This drink is called Columbia Skin by the Boston
people.

1901 J. E. Sheridan: The Complete Buffet Manual. Seite 60. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1902 Anonymus: Fox’s Bartender’s Guide. Seite 49. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump sugar.
One wine-glass Irish whiskey.
One piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water, put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whiskey and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1902 Anonymus: Fox’s Bartender’s Guide. Seite 49. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Made same as Irish Whiskey Skin, but substitute
Scotch whiskey for Irish.

1902 Charlie Paul: American and other iced drinks. Seite 17. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting Bourbon whiskey
for brandy.

Seite 16. No. 24. Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1902 Charlie Paul: American and other iced drinks. Seite 48. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting rye whiskey for
brandy.

Seite 16. No. 24. Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1902 Niels Larsen: 156 Recettes de Boissons Américaines. Seite 52. Scotch Whisky Skin.

[A préparer dans un verre à grog.]
1 verre à madère de scotch whisky;
Remplissez d’eau bouillante.
Ajoutez un zeste de citron et servez.

1903 Tim Daly: Daly’s Bartender’s Encyclopedia. Seite 81. Hot Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Use hot whiskey glass.
1 lump of loaf sugar.
Half fill the glass with hot water and
dissolve the sugar.
Fill up the glass with Scotch whiskey,
twist a piece of lemon peel on top, and
serve.

1903 Tim Daly: Daly’s Bartender’s Encyclopedia. Seite 83. Hot Whiskey Skin.

Use hot whiskey glass.
1 lump of sugar.
Half fill the glass with hot water, dis-
solve the sugar, then fill the glass with
whiskey, twist a piece of lemon on top, and
serve.

1903 V. B. Lewis: The Complete Buffet Guide. Seite 59. Columbia Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it
is, but is called in some places by the above name.

1903 V. B. Lewis: The Complete Buffet Guide. Seite 59. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1904 Frank Newman: American-Bar. Seite 24. Columbia Skin.

Verre no 6
Mettre dans un gobelet en argent un peu de glace
pilée:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre en poudre,
3 traits de jus de citron,
3 traits de curaçao,
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Adapter un second gobelet, frapper fortement, passer
en versant dans le verre n° 6, servir.

1904 Paul E. Lowe: Drinks as They Are Mixed. Seite 67. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Prepare same as Brandy Skin, sub-
stituting Scotch whiskey for brandy.

Seite 67. Brandy Skin.

Use whiskey glass.
Water, hot; fill glass 1/2 full.
Brandy, 1 wineglass.
Serve with twisted piece of lemon
peel on top.*

* Note: – All hot skins are made and
served alike, differing only in the kind
of liquor used.

1904 Thomas Stuart: Stuart’s Fancy Drinks. Seite 60. Columbia Skin.

(Small whisky glass.)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it
but called in Boston by the above name.

1904 Thomas Stuart: Stuart’s Fancy Drinks. Seite 60. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of lemon
peel on top and serve.

1905 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump sugar.
One wine-glass Irish whiskey.
One piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water, put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whiskey and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1905 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Made same as Irish Whiskey Skin, but substi-
tute Scotch whiskey for Irish.

1906 George J. Kappeler: Modern American Drinks. Seite 101. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Prepare same as Columbia Skin, the two being
the same, only known by the two different names.

Seite 101. Columbia Skin.

Put a small bar-spoon and a piece of twisted
lemon-peel into a whiskey-glass, add one jigger
whiskey, and fill the glass with hot water.

1907 Charles Smith: Smacks and Smiles. Seite 34. Columbia Skin.

Use a small whisky glass.
Prepare this the same as a Whisky
Skin, which it is, but is called in
Boston by the above name.

1907 Charles Smith: Smacks and Smiles. Seite 102. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Use a small whisky glass.
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water,
put a piece of lemon peel on top,
and serve.

1907 Frank Newman: American-Bar. Seite 24. Columbia Skin.

Verre no 6
Mettre dans un gobelet en argent un peu de glace
pilée:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre en poudre,
3 traits de jus de citron,
3 traits de curaçao,
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Adapter un second gobelet, frapper fortement, passer
en versant dans le verre n° 6, servir.

1908 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump sugar.
One wine-glass Irish whiskey.
One piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water, put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whiskey and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1908 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Made same as Irish Whiskey Skin, but substi-
tute Scotch whiskey for Irish.

1909 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 19. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting Bourbon whiskey
for brandy.

Seite 18. 24 – Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1909 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 50. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting rye whiskey for
brandy.

Seite 18. 24 – Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1910 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump sugar.
One wine-glass Irish whiskey.
One piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water, put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whiskey and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1910 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Made same as Irish Whiskey Skin, but substi-
tute Scotch whiskey for Irish.

1910 E. Moreno: Manual del cantinero. Seite 93. Whiskey skin escoces.

En un vaso pequefio, rociado con agua caliente,
métase lo que sigue:
Azúcar . . . . . . . 1 terrón
Agua hirviendo . . . . 1/2 del vaso
Whiskey Islay ó Glenlivet . . 1 copa
Añadase una corteza de limón y, después de ha-
berla agitado bien con una cuchara, ofrézcase la
bebidia.

1910 E. Moreno: Manual del cantinero. Seite 93. Whiskey skin irlandes.

Después de haber rociado un vaso pequeño con
agua caliente, añádase cuanto sigue:
Azúcar . . . . . . . 1 terrón
Agua hirviendo . . . . 1/2 del vaso
Whiskey Jamicon’s ó Kinahans’s 1 copa
Agréguese una corteza de limón y ofrézcase la be-
bida despula de haberla, removido con una cucharilla.

1912 Anonymus: Wehman Bros.’ Bartenders’ Guide. Seite 64. Columbia Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
One teaspoonful of sugar, dissolved in a little water;
One slice of lemon,
Two or three pieces of broken ice,
One wine-glass of rum.
Stir well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on top and serve.

1912 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump sugar.
One wine-glass Irish whiskey.
One piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water, put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whiskey and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1912 Charles S. Mahoney: The Hoffman House Bartender’s Guide. Seite 193. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Made same as Irish Whiskey Skin, but substi-
tute Scotch whiskey for Irish.

1912 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 19. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting Bourbon whiskey
for brandy.

Seite 18. 24 – Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon-
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1912 Charlie Paul: American and Other Iced Drinks. Seite 50. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting rye whiskey for
brandy.

Seite 18. Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a teaspoon-
ful of powdered sugar; squeeze in half a lemon;
add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup and half a
wine-glassful of brandy; then pare half a lemon
(same as an apple) and put in wine glass; shake
well and strain off.

1912 John H. Considine: The Buffet Blue Book. #235. Whiskey Skin (Scotch).

Use hot water glass; 1 lump of loaf sugar
dissolved in hot water, 1 jigger of Scotch
whiskey. Fill up with hot water; stir with
spoon; add lemon rind; grate nutmeg on
top, and serve.

1912 John H. Considine: The Buffet Blue Book. #236. Whiskey Skin (Irish).

Prepare this drink same as above, using
Irish whiskey instead.

1912 Niels Larsen: 156 Recettes de boissons américaines. Seite 52. Scotch Whisky Skin.

[A préparer dans un verre à grog.]
1 verre à madère de scotch whisky;
Remplissez d’eau bouillante.
Ajoutez un zeste de citron et servez.

1913 Bartender’s Association of America: Bartenders’ Manual. Seite 32. Irish Whisky Skin.

(Use bar glass.) 1 lump of
sugar; 1 wineglass Irish whisky; 1 piece lemon rind.
Rinse glass in hot water; put in sugar; fill glass
half full boiling water, add whisky and stir. Serve
with spoon.

1913 Bartender’s Association of America: Bartenders’ Manual. Seite 42. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass.)
1 wineglass of Scotch whisky; fill glass half full
with hot water; put a piece of lemon peel on top.

1913 Hans Schönfeld & John Leybold: Lexikon der Getränke. Seite 48. Columbia-Skin.

In ein Highballglas gib: 1 Teelöffel Zucker,
löse auf mit etwas Wasser, 3 Stck. Eis, 1 Cocktailglas
Rum, gut umrühren, etwas Muskatnuß obenauf streuen.

1913 Harry Montague: The Up-To-Date Bartender’s Guide. Seite 34. Whiskey Skin.

Substitute Scotch whiskey for brandy and pro-
ceed as for Brandy Skin.

Seite 34. Brandy Skin.

Fill whiskey glass 1/2 full hot water.
1 jigger brandy.
Twist piece of lemon skin on top and serve.

1913 Jacques Straub: A Complete Manual of Mixed Drinks. Seite 78. Columbia Skin.

1/2 Lump Sugar.
1 Jigger Rye Whiskey.
1 Lemon Peel.
Fill with Hot Water.

1913 Jacques Straub: A Complete Manual of Mixed Drinks. Seite 88. Columbia Skin.

Hot Rye Toddy.

Anmerkung: Es gibt keinen Rye Toddy, dafür einen Whiskey Toddy, Seite 130:

Crush 1/2 Lump of sugar with a little
Water in Old Fashion Glass.
1 Jigger Bourbon.
1 Lemon Peel.
Stir.

1914 Anonymus: New Bartender’s Guide. Seite 51. Scotch Whiskey Skins.

Use small bar-glass.
One lump of sugar.
One wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
One piece of lemon peel.
Rinse glass with hot water; put in sugar; fill
glass one-half full of boiling water; add Scotch
whiskey and serve with spoon.

1914 Anonymus: New Bartender’s Guide. Seite 61. Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar-glass.
One-half whiskey-glass of hot water.
One wine-glass of whiskey.
Twist a piece of lemon skin on top and serve.

1914 Anonymus: The Art of Mixing Them. Seite 53. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass.) 1 wineglass of Scotch
whisky; fill glass half full with hot water; put
a piece of lemon peel on top.

1914 Harry Montague: The Up-To-Date Bartenders‘ Guide. Seite 34. Whiskey Skin.

Substitute Scotch whiskey for brandy and pro­-
ceed as for Brandy Skin.

Seite 34. Brandy Skin.

Fill whiskey glass 1/2 full hot water.
1 jigger brandy.
Twist piece of lemon skin on top and serve.

1914 Anonymus: The Art of Mixing Them. Seite 53. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass.) 1 wineglass of Scotch
whisky; fill glass half full with hot water; put
a piece of lemon peel on top.

1914 Jacques Straub: Drinks. Seite 63. Columbia Skin.

1/2 lump sugar.
1 jigger rye whiskey.
1 lemon peel. Fill with hot water.

1914 Jacques Straub: Drinks. Seite 70. Columbia Skin.

Hot Rye Toddy.

Anmerkung: Es gibt keinen Rye Toddy, dafür einen Whiskey Toddy, Seite 96:

Crush 1/2 lump of sugar with a little water in
old fashion glass.
1 jigger bourbon.
1 lemon peel. Stir.

1915 John B. Escalante: Manual del cantinero. Seite 66. Hot Irish Whiskey Skin.

(Jat aris guisqui esquin)
USE UN VASO MEDIANO
Rocíese el vaso con agua caliente para evitar que se
raje, y agréguese:
Azúcar en cuadradillo . . . . . . . . . . 1 turrón.
Whiskey Irlandés . . . . . . . . . 1 copa mediana.
Acábese de llenar el vaso con agua hirviendo, añadase
una corteza de limón retorcida, mézclese bien con una cu-
chara, y sírvase.

1915 John B. Escalante: Manual del cantinero. Seite 66. Hot Ron Bacardi Skin.

(Jat ron bacardi esquin)
Procédase como para el “Hot Irish Whiskey Skin” em-
pleando el ron en lugar del whiskey Irlandés.

1915 John B. Escalante: Manual del cantinero. Seite 66. Hot Rye Whiskey Skin.

(Jat rai guisqui esquin)
Procédase como para el “Hot Ron Bacardi Skin” em-
pleando el whiskey Americano en lugar del ron.

1915 John B. Escalante: Manual del cantinero. Seite 67. Hot Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Jat escach guisqui esquin)
Procédase como para el “Hot Rye whiskey Skin” em-
pleando el whiskey Escocés en lugar del whiskey Ameri-
cano.

1916 Charlie Paul: Recipes of American and Other Drinks. Seite 19. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting Bourbon
whiskey for brandy.

Seite 18 (No. 24). Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a tea-
spoonful of powdered sugar; squeete in half a
lemon; add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup
and haIf a wineglassful of brandy; then pare
half a lemon (same as an apple) and put in wine
glass; shake well and strain off.

1916 Charlie Paul: Recipes of American and Other Drinks. Seite 48. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Same as No. 24, substituting rye whiskey for
brandy.

Seite 18 (No. 24). Brandy Skin.

Fill tumbler with chipped ice; put in a tea-
spoonful of powdered sugar; squeete in half a
lemon; add a teaspoonful of strawberry syrup
and haIf a wineglassful of brandy; then pare
half a lemon (same as an apple) and put in wine
glass; shake well and strain off.

1917 Tom Bullock: The Ideal Bartender. Seite 29. Columbia Skin.

This drink is identical with Whiskey Skin.

Anmerkung: Ein Whiskey Skin ist nicht im Buch enthalten, dafür ein Brandy Skin auf Seite 19:

Fill a Whiskey glass 1/2 full Hot Water and pour in:
1 jigger Brandy.
Twist a piece of Lemon Skin on top and serve.
(It may occur that a customer will ask for a Iittle Sugar.
In that case add 1/2 small teaspoonful, and stir).

1918 Anonymus: „Home Brewed“ Wines and Beers and Bartender’s Guide. Seite 28. Scotch Whiskey-Skin.

(Use small whiskey glass.)
One wine-glass Scotch whiskey.
Fill glass half full with hot water,
put a piece of lemon peel on top, and
serve.

1920 Niels Larsen: 156 recettes de boissons américaines. Seite 52. Scotch Whisky Skin.

[A préparer dans un verre à grog.]
1 verre à madère de scotch whisky;
Remplissez d’eau bouillante.
Ajoutez un zeste de citron et servez.

1921 Adolphe Torelli: Guide du barman. Seite 43. Colombia Skin.

Shaker avec glace pilée, avec
une cuillerée de sucre en poudre, deux traits
de jus de citron, un peu d’eau, un verre de
rhum, frapper et passer dans un petit verre à
pied, zeste citron, saupoudrer muscade et servez.

1921 Adolphe Torelli: Guide du barman. Seite 98. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Dans un verre à grog,
un verre à madère de Scotch Whisky, remplir
d’eau bouillante, zeste citron et servez.

1922 W. Slagter: Hoe maakt men american plainen fancy drinks. Seite 4. Columbia Skin.

1 Theelepel suiker
Een paar stukjes ijs.
1 Portglas Jamaica Rum
1 Citroenschijfje. Goed omroeren, er
een weinig nootmuskaat opstrooien; op-
dienen in een punch-glas.

1923 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 98. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orangé bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1923 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 98. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1923 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 114. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à caffé jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1923 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 114. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir.

1924 A. Brehmer: Das Mixerbuch. Seite 39. Boston Whiskey Skin.

Man gieße in einen Becher
1 Glas voll Rye Whiskey, lege 1 Stück Zitronenschale
hinein und fülle den Becher mit siedendem Wasser.

1924 A. Brehmer: Das Mixerbuch. Seite 43. Rye Whiskey Skin.

Siehe: Boston Whiskey Skin.

1924 A. Brehmer: Das Mixerbuch. Seite 44. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Man tue 1 Stück Zitronen-
schale und 1 Glas voll Glen Livet Whiskey in einen
halb mit siedendem Wasser gefüllten Becher.

1924 A. Brehmer: Das Mixerbuch. Seite 145. Bourbon Whiskey Skin.

Zubereitung wie bei Brandy
Skin, nur nehme man Bourbon Whiskey an Stelle des
Brandy.

Seite 146. Brandy Skin.

Man tue in ein mit geschabtem Eis ge-
fülltes Glas 1 Löffel voll Zucker, den Saft einer halben
Zitrone, 1 Teelöffel voll Himbeersaft und 1/2 Glas voll
Brandy, schüttle gut und seihe die Mischung durch.

1924 A. Brehmer: Das Mixerbuch. Seite 148. Columbia Skin.

Man löse 1 Teelöffel voll Zucker in
etwas Wasser auf, vermenge ihn mit 1 Glas voll Rum,
1 Zitronenschnitte und 2—3 Stücken Eis, streue Muskat-
nuß über die Mischung und serviere.

1926 W. Slagter: Cocktails. Seite 102. Columbia Skin.

1 Theelepel Suiker
Een paar stukjes ijs.
1 Portglas Jamaïca Rum
Wijnand Fockink
1 Citroenschijfje. Goed omroeren, er
een weinig nootmuskaat opstrooien; op-
dienen in een punch-glas.

1927 Adolphe Torelli: American Drinks Dictionary. Seite 55. Colombia Skin.

Dans un shaker avec de
la glace pilée, une cuillère de sucre en poudre,
deux traits de jus de citron, un verre de Rhum,
un tr ait d’eau de Seltz, agiter, passer dans un
petit verre à pied, garnir d’un zeste de citron,
saupoudrer de muscade et servir.

1927 Adolphe Torelli: American Drinks Dictionary. Seite 151. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Dans un verre à
grog, un verre à madère de Scotch-Whisky, un
zeste de citron. Remplir d’eau bouillante.

1927 Frederick Davies & Seymour Davies: Drinks of all Kinds. Seite 103. Columbia Skin.

Put into a small tumbler one wineglass of
Scotch whisky and a small piece of lemon-peel;
fill the tumbler half full with boiling water.

1927 Jean Lupoiu: 370 recettes de cocktails. Seite 30. Columbia Skin.

1 cuiller de sucre, 3 jets jus de citron, 3
jets Curaçao, 2/3 Rhum.
Agiter et servir.

1927 Paul E. Lowe: Drinks. Seite 41. Columbia Skin.

This drink is identical with whiskey
skin.

1927 Paul E. Lowe: Drinks. Seite 83. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Substitute Scotch whiskey for brandy
and proceed as for Brandy Skin.

Seite 32. Brandy Skin.

Fill a whiskey glass 1/2 full hot
water anl pour in:
1 jigger brandy.
Twist a piece of lemon skin on top
and serve.
(It may occur that a customer will
ask for a little sugar. In that case
add 1/2 small teaspoonful, and stir.)

1927 Paul E. Lowe: Drinks. Seite 94. Whiskey Skin.

Substitute whiskey for brandy and
proceed as for Brandy Skin.

Seite 32. Brandy Skin.

Fill a whiskey glass 1/2 full hot
water anl pour in:
1 jigger brandy.
Twist a piece of lemon skin on top
and serve.
(It may occur that a customer will
ask for a little sugar. In that case
add 1/2 small teaspoonful, and stir.)

1928 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass
One wineglass of Scotch One piece of lemon peel.
whiskey.

FILL the tumbler one-half full of boiling water.

1928 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass
One lump of white sugar. One small piece of lemon
One wineglass of Irish whis- peel.
key.

PROCEED as directed for Scotch Whiskey Skin.

1928 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Columbia Skin.

THIS is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a Whiskey
Skin.

1928 Pedro Chicote: Cocktails. Seite 351. Colombia-Skin.

Prepárese en cocktelera:
2 ó 3 pedacitos de hielo.
1 cucharada de azúcar.
Un poco de jugo de limón.
1 vasito de ron.
Agítese y sírvase en vaso de vino, terminándole
de llenar de agua de seltz, y añadiendo una roda=
ja de limón y un poco de nuez moscada rallada.

1929 Adolphe Torelli: American Drinks Dictionary. Seite 55. Colombia Skin.

Dans un shaker avec de
la glace pilée, une cuillère de sucre en poudre,
deux traits de jus de citron, un verre de Rhum,
un trait d’eau de Seltz, agiter, passer dans un
petit verre à pied, garnir d’un zeste de citron,
saupoudrer de muscade et servir.

1929 Adolphe Torelli: American Drinks Dictionary. Seite 151. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Dans un verre à
grog, un verre à madère de Scotch-Whisky, un
zeste de citron. Remplir d’eau bouillante.

1929 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass
One wineglass of Scotch One piece of lemon peel,
whiskey.
Fill the tumbler one-half full of boiling water.

1929 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Irish Whiskey Skin.

Use small bar glass
One lump of white sugar. One small piece of lemon
One wineglass of Irish whis- peel.
key.
Proceed as directed for Scotch Whiskey Skin.

1929 Jerry Thomas: The Bon Vivant’s Companion. Seite 147. Columbia Skin.

This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as a Whiskey
Skin.

1929 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 100. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1929 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 100. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1929 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 116. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1929 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 116. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n” 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir.

1930 Edgar Baudoin: Les Meilleurs Cocktails. Seite 11. Columbia Skin.

1 cuiller de sucre, 3 jets jus de citron, 3 jets Cura-
çao, 2/3 Rhum.
Agiter et servir.

1930 Gerardo Corrales: Club de Cantineros de la Republica de Cuba. Manual Oficial. Seite 99. Columbia Skin.

1/2 terrón de azúcar.
Vasito whiskey Rye.
Cáscara de limón.
Llénese con agua caliente.

1931 Albert Stevens Crockett: Old Waldorf Bar Days. Seite 198. Hot Whiskey Skin.

One lump Sugar, dissolved in hot
Water
One jigger Whiskey
One piece twisted Lemon Peel
Fill with hot Water

1931 Dexter Mason: Tipple and Snack. Seite 22. Colombia Skin.

1 jigger of Jamaica rum
1 teaspoon confectioners’ sugar
Stir in a glass filled with cracked ice, and
pour into a glass in which has been placed
a slice of lemon. Grate a little nutmeg
over each drink.

1931 Louis Leospo: Traité d’industrie hotelière. Seite 654. Columbia Skin.

Mettre dans un shaker:
Quelques morceaux de glace pilée.
4 gouttes de curaçao.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Jus d’un quart de citron.
1 cuillère à caié de sucre en poudre.
Remuer fortement le shaker.
Verser dans un verre à Madère.

1932 Niels Larsen: 156 recettes de boissons américaines. Seite 52. Hot Whisky Skin.

[A préparer dans un verre à grog.]
1 verre à madère de scotch whisky;
Remplissez d’eau bouillante.
Ajoutez un zeste de citron et servez.

1933 Anonymus: 300 Drinks and How to Mix ’em. Seite 38. Columbia Skin.

(Small whisky glass)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it is,
but is called in Boston by the above name.

1933 Anonymus: 300 Drinks and How to Mix ’em. Seite 38. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Pill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1933 Anonymus: Here’s How to Mix ‘Em. Seite 38. Columbia Skin.

(Small whisky glass)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it is,
but is called in Boston by the above name.

1933 Anonymus: Here’s How to Mix ‘Em. Seite 38. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(A small whisky glass)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1933 Anonymus: The Bartender’s Friend. Seite 63. Columbia Skin.

Rum Into a small tumbler 3/4 full of shaved
Syrup, Plain ice, put a thin slice of lemon, 1 tea-
Lemon spoonful of syrup, 1 drink of rum, and
Ice stir thoroughly. Then sprinkle with
Nutmeg nutmeg. (The name Columbia Skin
. is sometimes applied to a Whiskey
. Skin, which see.)

1933 Anonymus: The Bartender’s Friend. Seite 145. Whiskey Skin.

Follow recipe for Brandy Skin, but
use rye whiskey in place of brandy.

Seite 51. Brandy Skin.

Brandy Half fill a large whiskey glass with hot
Hot Water water, add 1 jigger of brandy, and put
Lemon Peel a twist of lemon peel on top.

1933 Fred W. Swan: When Good Fellows Get Together. Seite 61. Hot Skin.

All Hot Skins are made in the same man-
ner, substituting the desired liquors.

Skin—Brandy, Hot. (use a small bar glass)

1 lump sugar.
1 wineglass Brandy.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Rinse the glass with hot water and put in
the sugar. Fill glass half full with boiling
water, add the Brandy and stir. Serve with
a spoon.

1933 Fred W. Swan: When Good Fellows Get Together. Seite 62. Columbia Skin.

(use small bar glass)
1 teaspoon sugar, dissolved in a little
water.
1 slice lemon.
2 or 3 ice cubes.
1 wineglass of Rum.
Stir well with a spoon. Top with grated
nutmeg, and serve.

1933 Harry Todd: Mixer’s Guide. Seite 109. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One lump of sugar.
One wine glass of Scotch whisky.
One piece of lemon peel.
Rinse glass with hot water; put in sugar; fill glass one-half
full of boiling water; add Scotch whisky and serve with spoon.

1933 Harry Todd: Mixer’s Guide. Seite 109. Whisky Skin.

Use small bar glass.
One-half whisky glass of hot water.
One wine glass of whisky.
Twist a piece of lemon skin on top and serve.

1933 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 100. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller a café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1933 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 100. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1933 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 116. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée:
1 cuiller a café sirop de gomme.
1/8 cuiller à café jus de citron.
8 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1933 P. Dagouret: Le barman universel. Seite 116. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir.

1933 R. C. Miller: The American Bar Guide. Seite 62. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

(Use small bar g lass)
wine-glass of Scotch whiskey.
1 piece of lemon peel.
Fill the tumbler one-half full with boiling water.

1933 R. C. Miller: The American Bar Guide. Seite 62. Columbia Skin.

(Use small bar glass)
This is a Boston drink, and is made the same as whiskey
skin.

1934 Anonymus: A Life-Time Collection of 688 Recipes for Drinks. Seite 77. Columbia Skin.

1/2 lump of sugar 1 lemon peel
1 jigger Rye Whisky Fill with hot water

1934 Anonymus: A Life-Time Collection of 688 Recipes for Drinks. Seite 86. Columbia Skin.

Hot Rye Toddy

Einen Rye Toddy gibt es nicht, wohl aber das Rezept für einen Whisky Toddy, Seite 124:

Crush 1/2 lump of sugar with 1 jigger Bourbon
a little water in old 1 lemon peel
fashion glass Stir

1934 Anonymus: The Complete Bartender’s Guide. How to Mix Drinks. Seite 59. Columbia Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it
is, but is called in some places by the above name.

1934 Anonymus: The Complete Bartender’s Guide. How to Mix Drinks. Seite 59. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch Whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1934 Harry Johnson: The New and Improved Illustrated Bartenders‘ Manual. Seite 209. Columbia Skin.

(Use a small bar glass.)
1 teaspoonful of sugar, dissolve well with a little
water;
1 slice of lemon;
2 or 3 pieces of broken ice;
1 wine glass of Medford rum;
Stir up well with a spoon; grate a little nutmeg on
top and serve.
This drink is called Columbia Skin by the Boston
people.

1934 Ira A. Altschul: Drinks as They Were Made Before Prohibition. Seite 51. Whiskey Skin.

Use a hot water glass.
One cube of sugar.
One jigger whiskey.
One strip of lemon peel.
Rinse glass in hot water and place the sugar in glass.
Glass half full boiling water.
Add Whiskey and stir.
Serve toddy spoon.

1934 Magnus Bredenbek: What Shall We Drink. Seite 118. “Skin” Drinks.

All skin drinks are mixed the same and are called Whisky
Skin, Brandy Skin, Gin Skin, Rum Skin, Sherry Skin, etc.,
according to the liquor used. For example, let’s mix a
Whisky Skin.
Take one teaspoon of “gum,” two ounces of whisky and
mix well, adding a bit of tweaked lemon peel and half filling
small heavy tumbler with hot water. Stir well and use spoon
to sip.

1934 Tom and Jerry: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 59. Columbia Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
Prepare this the same as a Whisky Skin, which it
is, but is called in some places by the above name.

1934 Tom and Jerry: How to Mix Drinks. Seite 59. Scotch Whisky Skin.

(Use small whisky glass.)
1 wine-glass Scotch whisky.
Fill glass half full with hot water, put a piece of
lemon peel on top, and serve.

1935 Albert Stevens Crockett: The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book. Seite 87. Columbia Skill.

One-half lump Sugar
Two spoons not Water
One piece twisted Lemon Peel
One jigger Whiskey
Fill with hot Water; small spoon
Called after the prowess Columbia had exhibited in a
certain boat race with Cornell, and first composed upon
the demand of a Columbia “fan” for a new drink that
would properly commemorate the occasion.

1935 Albert Stevens Crockett: The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book. Seite 88. Hot Whiskey Skin.

Lump Sugar, dissolved in hot Water
One jigger Whiskey
One piece twisted Lemon Peel
Fill with hot Water

1935 Anonymus: The Art of Mixing Drinks. Seite 88. Scotch Whisky Skin.

1 Jigger Scotch whisky
1/2 Glass hot water
Place a piece of lemon peel on top and serve.

1936 Elvezio Grassi: 1000 Misture. Seite 128. Columbia Skin.

(Pelle di Co-
lumbia).
Agitare nel shaker con ghiac-
cio:
3 spruzzi Succo limone
1 cucchiaio zucchero
10 % acqua naturale
90 % Rhum Jamaica.
Versate in un bicch. a calice
piccolo e servite con buccia
limone ed una presa di Mo-
scata.

1936 Frank A. Thomas: Wines, Cocktails and other Drinks. Seite 182. Columbia Skin.

1 glass rum 1 teaspoon sugar
. 1 slice of lemon
Dissolve the sugar in a little water, then add cracked ice,
the rum, and the slice of lemon. Grate a little nutmeg on
top and serve in a small tumbler. An old-time Boston
favorite.

1936 Frank Meier: The Artistry of Mixing Drinks. Seite 66. Columbia Skin.

In saucepan: a tablespoon of
water, two lumps of Sugar,
the juice of one-half Lemon,
a teaspoon of Curaçao, one
glass of Rum; heat to foam, but
do not boil; serve in small
heated wineglass.
BRANDY, GIN or either WHIS-
KEY SKIN as above using li-
quor chosen.

1936 Frank Meier: The Artistry of Mixing Drinks. Seite 72. Columbia Skin.

In shaker: a teaspoon of Sugar,
the juice of one-half Lemon, a
teaspoon of Curaçao, one glass
of Rum; shake well, strain into
small wineglass and serve.
BRANDY, GIN or either WHIS-
KEY SKIN as above using liquor
chosen

1937 R. de Fleury: 1800 – And All That. Seite 316. Bourbon Whisky Skin.

This is made in the
same manner as
Brandy Skin, substitut­-
ing Bourbon Whisky
for Brandy.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 1.

Use Whisky glass
Fill glass half full of
Hot Water
1 Wineglass Brandy
Served with twisted
piece of Lemon Peel on
top.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 2.

Fill tumbler with chip­-
ped Ice
Put in a teaspoonful of
powdered Sugar
Squeeze in half a
Lemon
Add a teaspoonful of
Strawberry Syrup
1/2 Wineglassful of
Brandy
Then pare half a Lemon
(same as an Apple) and
put in wineglass. Shake
and strain off.

1937 R. de Fleury: 1800 – And All That. Seite 316. Columbia Skin.

1/2 Lump of Sugar
1 Oz. Rye Whisky
1 Lemon Peel
Fill with Hot Water.

1937 R. de Fleury: 1800 – And All That. Seite 316. Rye Whisky Skin.

This is made in the
same manner as
Brandy Skin, substitut­-
ing Rye Whisky for
Brandy.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 1.

Use Whisky glass
Fill glass half full of
Hot Water
1 Wineglass Brandy
Served with twisted
piece of Lemon Peel on
top.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 2.

Fill tumbler with chip­-
ped Ice
Put in a teaspoonful of
powdered Sugar
Squeeze in half a
Lemon
Add a teaspoonful of
Strawberry Syrup
1/2 Wineglassful of
Brandy
Then pare half a Lemon
(same as an Apple) and
put in wineglass. Shake
and strain off.

1937 R. de Fleury: 1800 – And All That. Seite 316. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Prepare the same as
Brandy Skin, substitu­-
ting Scotch Whisky for
Brandy.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 1.

Use Whisky glass
Fill glass half full of
Hot Water
1 Wineglass Brandy
Served with twisted
piece of Lemon Peel on
top.

Seite 313. Brandy Skin – No. 2.

Fill tumbler with chip­-
ped Ice
Put in a teaspoonful of
powdered Sugar
Squeeze in half a
Lemon
Add a teaspoonful of
Strawberry Syrup
1/2 Wineglassful of
Brandy
Then pare half a Lemon
(same as an Apple) and
put in wineglass. Shake
and strain off.

1937 Salvador Trullos Mateu: Recetario internacional de cock-tails. Seite 153. Columbia Skin.

Medio terrón do azúcar.
Vasito whiskey MONT VERNON.
Cáscara de limón.
Llénese con agua caliente.

1938 Jean Lupoiu: Cocktails. Seite 53. Columbia Skin.

Dans une petite casserole:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre, 2 jets de citron,
3 jets de Curaçao rouge Bardinet, 1 verre de
Rhum Négrita, 1 clou de girofle, une petite
pincée de canelle.
Bien chauffer et servir dans un verre à
Punch.
On peut servir cette boisson froide, en ce
cas, se servir du shaker.

1938 Krönlein-Beutel: Das Getränkebuch. Seite 142. Columbia Skin.

In ein Sherryglas
1 Eßlöffel Zuckersirup,
1 Zitronenscheibe,
3 Stückchen Eis
geben und mit Jamaika-Rum auffüllen. Mit Muskat,
Cayenne, Ingwer usw. bestreuen.

1940 Pedro Talavera: Los secretos del cocktail. Seite 54. Columbia S. Ling.

En la cocktelera, unos pedacitos de hielo.
1 cucharadita de azúcar.
1/3 limón exprimido.
10 gotas de Curaçao La Campana.
1 copa de Ron Bacardí.
Agítese bien, y se pasa al vaso núm. 3.

1945 George Gardner: How to be a bartender. Seite 67. Scotch Whiskey Skin.

Prepare same as Brandy Skin, sub­-
stituting Scotch whiskey for brandy.

Seite 67. Brandy Skin.

Use whiskey glass.
Water, hot; fill glass 1/2 full.
Brandy, 1 wineglass.
Serve with twisted piece of lemon
peel on top.*

*Note: — All hot skins are made and
served alike, differing only in the kind
of liquor used.

1945 R. M. Barrows & Betty Stone: 300 Ways to Mix Drinks. Seite 42. Whiskey Skin.

3/4 Oz. Hot Water
4 Oz. Rye Whiskey
1 Twist of Lemon peel

1947 A. Vermeys: Cocktails. Seite 35. Columbia Skin.

(dans une petite casserole)
1 cuillerée à café de sucre; 2 traits de citron;
3 traits de Curaçao rouge; 1 verre de Rhum
Négrita; 1 clou de girofle, une petite pincée
de canelle. Bien chauffer et servir dans un
verre à Punch.
On peut servir cette boisson froide et em-
ployer le Shaker.

1948 Adolphe Torelli: 900 Recettes de Cocktails et Boissons Américaines. Seite 55. Colombia Skin.

Dans un shaker avec de
la glace pilée, une cuillère de sucre en poudre,
deux traits de jus de citron, un verre de Rhum,
un trait d’eau de Seltz, agiter, passer dans un
petit verre à pied, garnir d’un zeste de citron,
saupoudrer de muscade et servir.

1948 Adolphe Torelli: 900 Recettes de Cocktails et Boissons Américaines. Seite 151. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Dans un verre à
grog, un verre à madère de Scotch-Whisky, un
zeste de citron. Remplir d’eau bouillante.

1948 Hilario Alonso Sanchez: El Arte del Cantinero. Seite 417. Columbia Skin.

1/2 cuadradillo de azúcar.
1 vasito de whisky Rye.
La cascara de un limón.
Todo en un vaso de pon-
che y llénesele con agua ca-
liente.

1948 Jean Lupoiu: Cocktails. Seite 42. Columbia Skin.

Dans une petite casserole:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre, 2 jets de
citron, 3 jets de Curaçao rouge, 1 verre de
Rhum, 1 clou de girofle, une petite pincée
de canelle.
Bien chauffer et servir dans un verre à
Punch.
On peut servir cette boisson froide, en
ce cas, se servir du shaker.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 10. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 10. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller a café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 10. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 10. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller a café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 11. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 11. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre a liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 11. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée:
1 cuiller à calé sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1948 P. Dagouret – Le Barman Universel 11. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir

1948 Trader Vic: Bartender’s Guide. Seite 316. Columbia Skin.

1 tbs. water Juice 1/2 lemon
2 cubes sugar 1 tsp. curaçao
. 2 oz. rum
Mix and heat in small saucepan but do not boil; served in
preheated wineglass with spoon.

1949 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Cold.

Timbale au 1/4 pleine de glace pllée:
1 cuiller à café sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1949 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 102. Columbia Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bltter.
1 verre à liqueur de rhum.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante.

1949 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Cold.

Timbale au quart de glace pilée;
1 cuiller à calé sirop de gomme.
1/2 cuiller à caffé jus de citron.
1 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Fermer le shaker. Frapper fort.
Passer dans verre n° 11. Servir.

1949 P. Dagouret: Le Barman Universel. Seite 118. Whisky Skin, Hot.

Gobelet n° 4, réchauffé:
1 cuiller à café sucre en poudre.
1/2 cuiller à café jus de citron.
2 traits d’orange bitter.
1 verre à liqueur de whisky.
Emplir aux 3/4 d’eau bouillante. Servir

1949 Wilhelm Stürmer: Cocktails by William. Seite 137. Scotch Whisky Skin.

Füge zu 1 Gläschen Scotch Whisky
heißes Wasser und garniere mit
Zitronenschale.

1952 Anonymus: Cocktails. Seite 116. Columbia Skin.

Dans une petite casserole:
Une cuiller à soupe d’eau,
Deux morceaux de sucre,
Le jus d’un demi-citron,
Une cuiller à café de curaçao,
Un verre de rhum.
Chauffer jusqu’à ébullition mais sans faire
bouillir.
Servir dans un verre à Bordeaux chauffé

1953 Anonymus: Esquire’s Handbook for Hosts. Seite 119. Columbia.

1 jigger rye whiskey
1 piece lemon peel
1/2 lump sugar
Fill with hot water.

1953 Leo Cotton: Old Mr. Boston Official Bartender’s Guide. Seite 152. Whiskey Skin.

Put Lump of Sugar into Hot Whiskey
glass and fill with two-thirds Boiling
Water. Add 2 oz. Old Mr. Boston Rye
or Bourbon Whiskey. Stir, then add
Twist of Lemon Peel on top and drop
in glass.

1955 Jean Lupoiu: Cocktails. Seite 47. Columbia Skin.

Dans une petite casserole:
1 cuillerée à café de sucre, 2 jets de
citron, 3 jets de Curaçao rouge, 1 verre de
Rhum, 1 clou de girofle, une petite pincée
de canelle.
Bien chauffer et servir dans un verre à
Punch.
On peut servir cette boisson froide, en
ce cas, se servir du shaker.

1956 Patrick Gavin Duffy: The Official Mixer’s Manual. Seite 122. Columbia Skin.

Heat in a small saucepan 1
tablespoon Water, 2 lumps of
Sugar, the Juice of 1/2 Lemon,
1 teaspoon Curaçao and 2 jiggers
Rum. Let foam but do not boil.
Serve in heated Wineglass.
Note: Brandy, Gin or Whiskey
may be prepared as above.

1960 Anonymus: Tout les cocktails et les boissons rafraichissantes. Seite 36. Columbia skin.

1 verre de Rhum
1 cuillerée de sucre
2 traits de jus de citron
1 trait d’eau de Seltz
1 zeste de citron
Poudrer de muscade

1965 Aladar von Wesendonk: 888 Cocktails. Seite 81. Kolumbia Skin.

2 TL Grenadinesirup
1 Cocktailmaß Rum
im Mixbecher mit Eis rühren,
ins Cocktailglas abseihen,
mit 1 Zitronenscheibe garnieren
und mit je 1 Prise Pfeffer und
Muskat überstreuen

1965 Aladar von Wesendonk: 888 Cocktails. Seite 167. Columbia.

1 Cocktailmaß Rye Whiskey
1 Stück Zitronenschale
1 Stück Würfelzucker
mit etwas kochendem Wasser mi=
schen und im Grogglas servieren

1966 Harry Schraemli: Le roi du bar. Seite 74. Columbia Skin.

Petit tumbler chauffé. 1 cb sucre, 1 Bour-
bon, finir de remplir avec de l’eau chaude.
Grand zeste de citron (spirale).

1972 Leo Cotton: Old Mr. Boston. Seite 108. Whiskey Skin.

Put lump of sugar into hot whiskey
glass and fill two-thirds with boiling
water. Add 2 oz. Old Mr. Boston
Whiskey. Stir, then add twist of
lemon peel and drop in glass.

* Bourbon, Blended, Rye or Canadian.

1977 Stan Jones: Jones’ Complete Barguide. Seite 257. Columbia Skin.

Fizz Glass Build
Heat in saucepan:
1 tblsp water
2 lumps sugar
1 oz lemon juice
1/4 oz orange curaçao
2 oz rum

1977 Stan Jones: Jones’ Complete Barguide. Seite 431. Whiskey Skin.

Old Fashioned Glass Build
Fill with hot water
2 oz whiskey
Lemon twist

explicit capitulum
*

About

Hi, I'm Armin and in my spare time I want to promote bar culture as a blogger, freelance journalist and Bildungstrinker (you want to know what the latter is? Then check out "About us"). My focus is on researching the history of mixed drinks. If I have ever left out a source you know of, and you think it should be considered, I look forward to hearing about it from you to learn something new. English is not my first language, but I hope that the translated texts are easy to understand. If there is any incomprehensibility, please let me know so that I can improve it.

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