Literature

The foundation of bartending – historical books in times of the internet. Part 2: Literature in the 19th century before Harry Johnson (1827 – 1881)

Literature

In 1827, “Oxford Night Caps” appeared as the first English-language book devoted exclusively to mixed drinks. With this book we begin the listing of books available on the internet and continue it until 1881, one year before the Manhattan Cocktail appears in print.

I have described at the end of this page which publications from the period between 1827 and 1881 are recommendable, and why this is so.

[1827] Anonymus: Wine and Spirit Adulterations Unmasked in a Treatise, Setting Forth the Manner Employed, and the Various Ingredients Which Constitute the Adulterations and Impositions Effected with the Different Wines and Spirits Offered to the Public, Through the Medium of Cheap Prices, By Many of the Advertising and Placarding Wholesale Wine and Spirit Merchants, and Gin-Shop-Keepers, of the Present Day. London, Eigenverlag, 1827.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1827-Wine-and-spirit-adulterators-unmasked1

[1827] Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps. Being a Collection of Receipts for Making Various Beverages Used in the University. Oxford (Henry Slatter) & London (Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green), 1827.

https://archive.org/details/oxfordnightcaps00cookgoog

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1827-Oxford-night-caps-a-collection-of-receipts-for-making-various-beverages-used-in-the-university1

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1827-Oxford-Night-Caps Note: This file contains the last four pages!

[1835] Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps. Being a Collection of Receipts for Making Various Beverages Used in the University. 3. Auflage. Oxford (Henry Slatter) & London (Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green), 1835.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1835-Oxford-night-cap-s

[1847] Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps. A Collection of Receipts for Making Various Beverages Used in the University. 4. Auflage, Oxford, Henry Slatter, 1847.

https://archive.org/details/oxfordnightcapsc00cook

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1847-Oxford-night-caps-A-collection-of-receipts-for-making-various-Beverages-used-in-the-university1

[1849] Anonymus: Diccionario de artes, oficios, y economia industrialy mercantil. Band 1. Paris, Libreria De Rosa, Bouret y Cia. Daraus: Seite 399 – 407 (Alcohol), 294 – 295 (Cervecerias).

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_WlTyM5WA5aZHcwUzY4cnEzWG8/view

[1849] Anonymus: Diccionario de artes, oficios, y economia industrialy mercantil. Band 2. Paris, Libreria De Rosa, Bouret y Cia. Daraus: Seite 56 – 65 (Destilacion).

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_WlTyM5WA5aU0lpVzUxSXJuTjg&authuser=0

[1849] Anonymus: Diccionario de artes, oficios, y economia industrialy mercantil. Band 4. Paris, Libreria De Rosa, Bouret y Cia. Daraus: Seite 210 – 226 (Vinagre, Vinos), 438 – 456 (Vinos).

https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_WlTyM5WA5aQnBsaUdaVWtnSDg&authuser=0

[1850] William Bernhard: The Book of One Hundred Beverages. London, Houlston And Stoneman, 1850.

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1850-The-Book-of-One-Hundred-Beverages-by-William-Bernhard

[1853] William Bernhard: The Book of One Hundred Beverages: For Family Use. New York (C. S. Francis and Company) & Boston (Crosby, Nichols & Co.), 1853.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100182447 (view only)

[1855] P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs et de la distillation des alcools ou le liquoriste & le distillateur modernes contenant Les precédés les plus nouveaux por la Fabrication des Liqueurs françaises et étrangères; Fruits à l’eau-de-vie et au sucre; Sirops, Conserves, Eaux, Esprits parfumés, Vermouts et Vins de Liqueur; Anisi que la description compléte des operations necessaires pour la distillation de touts les alcools. Tome Premier. Versailles & Paris, 1855.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1855-Traite-des-liqueurs-et-de-la-distillation-des-alcools-ou-Le-liquoriste-et-le-distillateur-modernes-1855

[1855] William Bernhard: The Book of One Hundred Beverages: For Family Use. New York (C. S. Francis and Company) & Boston (Crosby, Nichols & Co.), 1853.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100182446 (view only)

[1857] Anonymus: The Bordeaux Wine and Liquor Dealers’ Guide. A Treatise on the Manufacture and Adulteration of Liquors. New York, Mabie & Co., 1857.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1857-The-Bordeaux-wine-and-liquor-dealers-guide

[1859] Anonymus: The Bar Tender’s Guide, or Complete Encyclopaedia of Fancy Drinks, Containing Plain and reliable directions for making all the Fancy Drinks used in the United States, together with the most popular British, French, German and Spanish recipes. To which is appended a Manual for the Manufacturing of Cordials, Liqueurs, Fancy Syrups, etc etc, the same being adapted to the trade of the United States and Canadas. New York: Dick & Fitzgerald.

This book received a copyright notice at the Library of Congress, which still exists. The book was announced in the press, but it looks as if it was never published. There are no known copies. [1]

[1859] William Bernhard: The Book of One Hundred Beverages: For Family Use. New York (C. S. Francis and Company) & Boston (Crosby, Nichols & Co.), 1859.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1859-THE-BOOK-OF-ONE-HUNDRED-BEVERAGES-BERNHARD-William

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100154228 (view only)

[1860] John Marquart: 600 Miscellaneous Valuable Receipts, Worth Their Weight in Gold. A Thirty Years’ Collection. Lebanon, Christian Henry, 1860.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011626695 (view only)

[1860] John Stephen: A Treatise on the Manufacture, Imitation, Adulteration, and Reduction of Foreign Wines, Brandies, Gins, Rums, Etc. Etc. Including „Old Rye“ Whiskey, „Old Rye Monongahela,“ „Wheat,“ and „Bourbon“ Whiskeys, Fancy Brandies, Cordials, and Domestic Liquors. Based Upon the „French System.“ Philadelphia, Eigenverlag, 1860.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1860-A-Treatise-on-the-Manufacture-Imitation-Adulteration-and-Reduction-of-Foreign-Wines-Brandies1

https://archive.org/details/atreatiseonmanu00unkngoog

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011540992 (view only)

[1860] Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps. A Collection of Receipts for Making Various Beverages Used in the University. Oxford, Slatter & Rose, 1860.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1860-Oxford-Night-Caps

[1862] Jerry Thomas: The Bartenders’ Guide, A Complete Cyclopædia of Plain and Fancy Drinks, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes, Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. To Which is Appended a Manual For The Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syrups, Etc., Etc., After the Most Approved Methods Now Used in the Destillation of Liquors and Beverages, Designed For the Special Use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern-Keepers, and Private Families, the Same Being Adapted to the Tteade of The United States and Canadas. The Whole Containing Over 600 Valuable Recipes by Christian Schultz. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1862.

https://archive.org/details/bartendersguide01thom

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100632655

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1862-The-bar-tenders-guide-1862-2-50

[1862] Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks, Or, The Bon-vivant’s Companion, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes, Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. To Which is Appended a Manual For The Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syrups, Etc., Etc., After the Most Approved Methods Now Used in the Destillation of Liquors and Beverages, Designed For the Special Use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern-Keepers, and Private Families, the Same Being Adapted to the Tteade of The United States and Canadas. The Whole Containing Over 600 Valuable Recipes by Christian Schultz. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1862.

https://archive.org/details/howtomixdrinkso00schugoog

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1862-How-to-Mix-Drinks-or-the-Bon-Vivant-s-Companion

https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011547121

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1862-Bar-Tender-s-Guide-price-2-50-by-Jerry-Thomas

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1862-How-to-Mix-Drinks-or-the-Bon-Vivant-s-Companion-1-50-pdf

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1862-How_to_Mix_Drinks_or_The_Bon-Vivant_s_Companion-US.pdf

[1862] M. F. Malepeyre: Nouveau manuel complet du limonadier, glacier, cafetier et de l’amateur de thés et de cafés contenant la description des meilleurs appareils pour fabriquer la glace et les boissons frappées ou refraîchissantes a l’usage des débitants & des ménages. Paris, 1862.

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1862-Nouveau_Manuel_du_Limonadier-FR.pdf

[1863] George Edwin Roberts & Henry Porter: Cups And Their Customs. London, John Van Voorst, 1863.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1863-Cups-and-their-customs-1863

https://archive.org/details/cu31924085646952

https://archive.org/details/cupsandtheircus00robegoog

https://archive.org/details/cupstheircustoms00robe_1

https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011553334

http://cocktailnørden.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Porter-Henry-George-Edwin-Roberts-Cups-and-their-Customs-1863.pdf

[1863] Jerry P. Thomas: The Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Bar-Keepers. San Francisco.

Unknown publisher. No copies of this book exist, so its existence cannot be confirmed. According to an 1863 review in the San Francisco-based Daily Alta California, the book contained Thomas’s autobiography, illustrated biographical sketches of the leading bartenders of the day, and a collection of recipes. In a brief newspaper note, the title of the book is also given as “The Portrait Gallery of Eminent Bar-Keepers”. [1]

[1863] Pierre Lacour: The Manufacture of Liquors, Wines, and Cordials, Without the Aid of Destillation. Also the Manufacture of Effervescing Beverages and Syrups, Vinegar, and Bitters. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1863.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1863-The-manufacture-of-liquors-wines-and-cordials

[1864] Anonymus: The English and Australian Cookery Book. London, Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1864.

http://www.bargiornale.it/the-english-and-australian-cookery-book-1864/

[1864] Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks, Or, The Bon-vivant’s Companion, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes, Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. To Which is Appended a Manual For The Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syrups, Etc., Etc., After the Most Approved Methods Now Used in the Destillation of Liquors and Beverages, Designed For the Special Use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern-Keepers, and Private Families, the Same Being Adapted to the Tteade of The United States and Canadas. The Whole Containing Over 600 Valuable Recipes by Christian Schultz. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1862.

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1864-Bar-Tender-s-Guide-price-2-00-by-Jerry-Thomas

[1865] Anonymus: The Art and Mystery of Making British Wines, Cider and Perry, Cordials and Liqueurs ; With Directions for the Management of Foreign Wines and Spirituous Liquors; And Recipes for the Whole Art of Brewing, With Remarks on the Treatment of Malt Liquors, and a List of Utensils for the Brewhouse, Still-Room, and Cellar. London, Chapman and Hall, 1865.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008596904 (view only)

[1865] Neail N. Brown: The Liquor Dealers and Bar-Tenders Companion Containing Valuable Recipes for the Imitation and Manufacture of Foreign and Domestic Liquors and Fancy Drinks. New York.

Yale University had a copy, but it is lost. [1]

[1866] Anonymus: La véritable manière de faire le punch. Librairie du a Petit Journal, ohne Jahr.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1866-La-Veritable-Maniere-de-faire-le-Punch

[1866] L. Monzert: The Independent Liquorist, or, the Art of Manufacturing and Preparing all Kinds of Cordials, Syrups, Bitters, Wines, Champagne, Beer, Punches, Tinctures, Extracts, Essences, Flavorings, Colorings, Worcestershire Sauce, Club Sauce, Catsups, Pickles, Preserves, Jams, Jellies, Etc., Etc.. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1866.

https://archive.org/details/independentliquo00unse

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012454849 (view only)

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008635927 (view only)

[1867] Anonymus: How to Mix Drinks, or Bar-Tender’s Guide. New Edition, Enlarged and Improved.

Published (or at least advertised) by B. C. West in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania. There are no known surviving copies. According to the advertisement in the New York Clipper, which lists a number of the drinks it contains, this book is a slightly expanded plagiarised edition of Thomas’ 1862 book. The book is also advertised as “The Bartender’s Guide to Mix Drinks”. [1]

[1867] Charles B. Campbell: The American Barkeeper. Containing Experimental Knowledge and the Elements of Success Acquired in the Management of the Most Popular Bars Throughout the United States. San Francisco: Mullin, Mahon & Co.

This book is probably a plagiarism of Thomas’s 1863 book. There is no saloonkeeper named Charles Campbell listed for San Francisko in the period in question; only a person of the same name is listed as a typesetter in a newspaper publishing house. The Bancroft Library has a copy of this book, and there is said to be at least one other surviving copy. [1]

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1867-The-American-Barkeeper-by-a-Practical-Liquor-Manufacturer (view only)

[1867] John Marquart: Six Hundred Receipts: Worth Their Weight in Gold, Including Receipts for Cooking, Making Preserves, Perfumery, Cordials, Ice Creams, Inks, Paints, Dyes of All Kinds, Cider, Vinegar, Wines, Spirits, Whiskey, Brandy, Gin, Etc. Philadelphia, John E. Potter and Company, 1867.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1867-Six-Hundred-Receipts-by-John-Marquart

https://archive.org/details/cu31924087271494

https://archive.org/details/sixhundredreceipt00marq

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100236225

[1868] Anonymus: The Barkeeper’s Companion.

This book is advertised in the New York Clipper and was sold by W. Hepburne, 102 Nassau St, New York, “free” in exchange for two postage stamps. Otherwise, this publication is unknown. It is probably not a real book but a pamphlet. [1]

[1868] M. La Fyette Byrn: The Complete Practical Distiller: Comprising The Most Perfect and Exact Theoretical and Practical Description of the Art of Destillation and Rectification; Including All of The Most Recent Improvements in Distilling Apparatus; Instructions for Preparing Spirits From the Numerous Vegetables, Fruits, &c. Directions For the Distillation and Preparation of All Kinds of Brandies and Other Spirits, Spirituous and Other Compounds, Etc., Etc. All of Which Is So Simplified That It Is Adapted Not Only to the Use of Extensive Distillers, But for Every Farmer, or Others Who May Wish to Engage in the Art of Distilling. Philadelphia, Henry Carey Baird, 1868.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1868-The-complete-Practical-Distiller

[1869] Anonymus: Haney’s Steward & Barkeeper’s Manual: A complete and practical guide for preparing all kinds of plain and fancy mixed drinks and popular beverages. Being the Most Approved Formulas Known in the Profession, Designed for Hotels, Steamers, Club Houses, Etc., Etc. to Which is Appended Recipes for Liqueurs, Cordials, Bitters, Syrups, etc., etc. New York, Jesse Haney & Co., 1869.

The book was one of many titles produced and distributed by Jesse Haney & Co. This book is of particular interest because, for example, Anistatia Miller, Jared Brown, Dave Wondrich and Mauro Majoub believe that this book could be the first publication of Harry ‘The Dean’ Johnson, although this cannot be confirmed with certainty. According to David Wondrich, some editions have an additional chapter “Miscellaneous” with drinks. This chapter was added in 1873 or later, as many of these recipes were taken from an article that appeared in the New York Sun in 1873. It is possible that the book was written by Harry Johnson, who in later years claimed to have written the first manual for bartenders around 1869. Since older books do not include instructions for bartenders beyond just recipes, and this is the first book to do so – albeit to a small extent – it fits his description. Three to four copies of this book have survived. [1]

https://archive.org/details/haneysstewardbar00hane

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1869-Haney-s-steward-barkeeper-s-manual-a-complete-and-practical-guide-for-preparing-all-kinds-of-plain-and-fancy-mixed-drinks-and-popular-beverages-1869

http://cocktailnørden.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Haneys-Steward-and-Barkeepers-Manual-1869-1.pdf

[1869] George Edwin Roberts & Henry Porter: Cups And Their Customs. 2. Auflage. London, John Van Voorst, 1869.

https://archive.org/details/cupstheircustoms00robe

https://archive.org/details/cupstheircustoms00robe_0

https://archive.org/details/cupstheircustoms00robeiala

https://archive.org/details/cupstheircustoms00lond

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011553334 (view only)

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001881486 (3 copies, 1 of which view only)

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1849-Drinking-Cups-and-their-Customs-Mixellany

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1863_1869-Cups_and_Their_Customs-UK.pdf

[1869] William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Collection of Recipes for „Cups“ and Other Compounded Drinks, and of General Information on Beverages of All Kinds. London & New York, George Routledge & Sons, 1869.

https://archive.org/details/coolingcupsandd00terrgoog

https://openlibrary.org/works/OL13176133W/Cooling_cups_and_dainty_drinks_And_of_General_Information_on_Beverages_of_All_Kinds._By_William_..

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1869-Cooling-Cups-and-Dainty-drinks-by-William-Terrington

http://cocktailnørden.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Terrington-William-Cooling-Cups-and-Dainty-Drinks-1869.pdf

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1869-%20Cooling_Cups_and_Dainty_Drinks-UK.pdf

[1870] Anonymus. How to Make More than One Hundred Summer and Winter Drinks [&c.]. New York, Thomas O’Kane, Publisher, Bookseller, Stationer and Printer, No. 130 Nassau Street.

This is a plagiarism of William Terrington’s “Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks” from 1869. [1]

[1871] Anonymus: Barkeepers’ Ready Reference Containing One Hundres Valuable Recipes for Mixed Drinks. Also, Recipes for Cooking Oysters and Game. With A List of Houses From Which to Obtain All Things in the Saloon Trade, From a Cask of Brandy to a Common Straw Through Which You Drink Your Cobbler. Ohne Ort, A. V. Bevill, 1871.

Here it is noted that the author is probably A[mericus].V. Bevill. [1]

https://archive.org/details/barkeepersreadyr00unse

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1871-Barkeeper-s-ready-reference

[1871] E. Ricket & C. Thomas: The Gentleman’s Table Guide. Being Practical Recipes for Wine Cups, American Drinks, Punches, Cordials, Summer & Winter Beverages. Recherché Bills of Fare With Service of Wines, etc., etc. London, H. Born, 1871.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1871-The-Gentleman-s-Table-Guide-by-E-Ricket-and-C-Thomas

https://archive.org/details/gentlemanstable00thomgoog

http://www.bargiornale.it/the-gentlemans-table-guide/

[1871] Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps. A Collection of Receipts for Mixing Various Beverages Used in the University. New edition, enlarged. Oxford, Slater & Rose, 1871.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1871-Oxford-Night-Caps-a-collection-of-receipts-for-making-various-beverages-used-in-the-university

[1872] Edward Ricket: The Gentleman’s Table Guide. Being Practical Recipes for Wine Cups, American Drinks, Punches, Cordials, Summer & Winter Beverages. Recherché Bills of Fare With Service of Wines, etc., etc. London, Frederick Warne & Co., 1872.

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1872-The-Gentleman-s-Table-Guide-2nd-edition

[1872] William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Collection of Recipes for „Cups“ and Other Compounded Drinks, and of General Information on Beverages of All Kinds. London & New York, George Routledge & Sons, ohne Jahr.

No year is given in the book. However, the year 1872 seems to be correct, because it is listed in “The Bookseller” in 1872. [1]

http://www.euvs.org/en/collection/book/cooling-cups-and-dainty-drinks

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1872-Cooling-Cups-and-Dainty-Drinks-Mixellany

[1874] H. L. W.: The American Bar-Tender, or, The art and mystery of mixing drinks together with observations on the qualities of wines, liquors, and cigars : to which is appended several hundred toasts, patriotic, firemen’s, political, lovers’, sporting, etc. New York: Hurst & Co.

According to Worldcat.org, a microfilm copy exists at Harvard and a book at Lamar University in Texas. The book is a plagiarism of Jerry Thomas, with a few new recipes. [1]

[1875] Anonymus: The American Bar-Tender; or the art and mystery of mixing drinks, together with observations on the qualities of wines, liquors and cigars. New York, Advance Publishing Company, 1875.

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1875-American_Bar_Tender-US.pdf

[1876] Henry Vizetelly: Facts About Sherry, Gleaned in the Vineyards and Bodegas of the Jerez, Seville, Moguer, & Montilla Districts During the Autumn of 1875. London, Ward, Lock, and Tyler, 1876.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1876-Facts-About-Sherry-by-Henry-Vizetelly

[1876] Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks, Or, The Bon-vivant’s Companion, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes, Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. To Which is Appended a Manual For The Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syrups, Etc., Etc., After the Most Approved Methods Now Used in the Destillation of Liquors and Beverages, Designed For the Special Use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern-Keepers, and Private Families, the Same Being Adapted to the Tteade of The United States and Canadas. The Whole Containing Over 600 Valuable Recipes by Christian Schultz. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1876.

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1876-How-to-Mix-Drinks-or-the-Bon-Vivant-s-Companion-2-50-by-Jerry-Thomas

[1876] Jerry Thomas: The Bar-Tender’s Guide; or, How to Mix All Kinds of Plain and Fancy Drinks, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes; Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1876.

http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100519419 (view only)

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1883-The-Bar-Tenders-Guide-or-How-to-Mix-all-kinds-of-Plain-and-Fancy-Drinks-1976-edition

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1876-Bar-Tender-s-Guide-by-Jerry-Thomas

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1876-Jerry-Thoma-s-Bar-Tender-s-Guide-or-How-to-Mix-Drinks-Soft-Cover

https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1876-Jerry_Thomas_Bar_Tender_s_Guide-US.pdf

[1876] P. Duplais: Traité de la fabrication des liqueurs et de la distillation des alcools, contenant les procédés les plus nouveaux pour la fabrication des liqueurs françaises et étrangères, fruits a l’eau-de-vie et au sucre, sirops, conserves, eaux et esprits parfumés, vermouts, vins de liqueur, suivi du traité de la fabrication des eaux et boissons gazeuses et de la description complète des operations nécessaires pour la distillation des alcools. Tome premier. Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1876.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1876-Traite-de-la-Fabrication-des-liqueurs-et-de-la-distillation-des-alcools

[1878] Figuier Y Quentin: Manual del cafetero. arreglado para uso de las familias contiene la fabrication del hielo artificial junto con 100 fórmulas para la confeccion de helados, ponches, sorbetes, bávaras, granizados, zabayones y otros refrescos y bebidas calientes con una notocia acerca de las propiedades, clases y uso del café, té, chocolates y materias colorantes. 2. Auflage. Barcelona, Manuel Saurí, 1878.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1878-Manual-del-Cafetero-by-Figuier-y-Quentin-2nd-edition

[1878] Leo Engel: American & Other Drinks. Upwards of Two Hundred of The Most Approved Recipes, for Making The Principal Beverages Used in The United States and Elsewhere. London, Tinsley Brothers, London, 1878.

https://archive.org/details/b2039715x

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1878-American-and-other-drinks

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1878-American-other-Drinks-by-Leo-Engel

https://archive.org/details/americanandothe00engegoog

http://cocktailnørden.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Engel-Leo-American-and-Other-Drinks-1878.pdf

[1879] Henry Vizetelly: Facts About Champagne and Other Sparkling Wines, Collected During Numerous Visits to the Champagne and Other Viticultural Districts of France, and the Proncipal Remaining Wine-Producing Country of Europe. London, Ward, Lock and Co, 1879.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1879-Facts-About-Champagne-and-Other-Sparkling-Wines

https://archive.org/details/factsaboutchampa00unse

[ca. 1880] Anonymous: The Barman’s and Barmaid’s Manual or, How to Mix All Kinds of Fancy Drinks &c. London: The International Publishing Company.

According to WorldCat published around 1880, David Wondrich dates it to 1878 and 1879. [1]

[1880] Henry Vizetelly: Facts about Port and Madeira with Notices of the Wines Vintaged Around Lisbon, and the Wines of Tenerife. London, Ward, Lock, and Co., 1880.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1880-Facts-about-Port-and-Madeira-by-Henry-Vizetelly

[1880] Leo Engel: American & Other Drinks. Upwards of Two Hundred of The Most Approved Recipes, for Making The Principal Beverages Used in The United States and Elsewhere. 2. Auflage. London, Tinsley Brothers, London, ohne Jahr.

http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1880-American-Other-Drinks-by-Leo-Engel-second-edition

https://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1881-American-and-Other-Drinks-second-edition-Hard-cover-by-Leo-Engel

[1881] N. N. Brown: Liquor Dealers’ and Bar-tenders’ Companion: Bar-tenders’ Part: how to Mix Fancy Drinks, &c. (3rd ed.). Reading, PA: News Print.

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania owns a copy. It is almost entirely a plagiarism of Jerry Thomas. [1]

Recommendations

1827 Richard Cook: Oxford Night Caps

“Oxford Night Caps” must be considered as influential as Jerry Thomas’ 1862 book “The Bartenders’ Guide”, for it was the first book devoted exclusively to the subject of mixed drinks. It was intended to give the students of Oxford University a guide to the preparation of these drinks. In it, one finds numerous preparations that have now fallen into oblivion. The first edition was published in 1827, followed by others in 1831, 1835, 1847 and 1871, each with new recipes. [2] [11] The book was published anonymously, but it is known that the author was Richard Cook. He was a so-called “scout” for students at Oxford, i.e. a combination of valet and housekeeper, privately employed by the students. We may assume that he was an eminent person, for he was favourably mentioned in many reminiscences of Oxford. His nickname was Cicero. Against this background, one can regard the “Oxford Night Caps” as a kind of manual for the butler, describing the preparation of mixed drinks. However, the book differs greatly from the usual manuals for butlers or innkeepers of the time, because it was supplemented with more extensive texts. Perhaps the book was published anonymously because Richard Cook wanted to protect his reputation. This, and also the students’ tendency to drink alcohol, was something that conveyed a negative image of the prestigious university. [3]

In 1827, the first publication is discussed in detail. The text ends with the sentences:  “With this we conclude. The reader who wants to know the mysteries of Lawn-sleeves or Cardinal, Storative or Rumbooze, Rumfastian or Brown Betty, must consult the work itself. It is written, we understand, by the punch-maker in ordinary for the college of Brazenose, and has obtained an imprimatur from the Chaplain of the late Lord Mayor. There are few better books in our time, and we have read some thousand worse.[7-159]

Brasenose College is one of the constituent and one of the older colleges of Oxford University. [8] Contemporary accounts of student life indicate that drunkenness was commonplace among Oxford students: “Writing to Benjamin Disraeli, W.G. Meredith said of his time at Brasenose College, ‘‘It is quite amusing to hear the noise in our quad which usually takes place at about 11 or 12 o’clock. After liberally imbibing the liquors which are of every description from champagne to gin and water, they do the institution what is called a Vauxhall, and promenade up and down the grass plot smoking and drinking malt, till a very late hour.” Drinking at university continued to be tolerated, even when it was being condemned in the wider world.[9]

“Throughout the 19th century, Brasenose was known for its sociability, and three of its favoured drinks, Lawn Sleeves, Cardinal and Pope, were featured in Oxford Night Caps … . Owing ‘their origin to some Brasen-nose Bacchanalians,’11 all three are variations on the more complex spiced wine known as Bishop, which was made with roasted lemons, boiled port and a variety of spices. None of these, however, was drunk on Shrove Tuesday. In its simplest form, ‘Brasenose Ale’ is first recorded in the 1847 edition of Oxford Night Caps. Therecipe is simple: ‘Three quarts of ale, sweetened with refined sugar finely pulverised, and served up in a bowl with six roasted apples floating in it.’” [10-129] [10-130]

Charles Dickens also reports on the students’ customs in his novel “Nicholas Nickleby”, published between 1838 and 1839: “I have often heard them say, that the young men at college are uncommonly particular about their nightcaps, and that the Oxford nightcaps are quite celebrated for their strength and goodness; so much so, indeed, that the young men never dream of going to bed without ’em, and I believe it’s admitted on all hands that they know what’s good, and don’t coddle themselves.[4-362] 

A book review of the year 1832 writes: ““Oxford Night Caps.“ In the evenings of this cold and dreary season, „the dead of the winter,“ a comfortable potion strengthens the heart of the healthy and cheers the spirits of the feeble. This is a book of good intent and purpose, and therefore in its columns will be found occasional directions for compounding agreeable drinks, – a few extracted from manuscript memoranda, and others from publications which are not usually in the collections of notable house-keepers, to whom, however, it is presumed hints of this sort will be acceptable. And, to begin, resort is now made to „Oxford Night Caps, – a collection of receipts for making various beverages used in the university.[6-62]

1862 Jerry Thomas: The Bartenders’ Guide

In 1862, a book was published under the titles “The Bartender’s Guide, or Complete Encyclopedia of Fancy Drinks” and “How to Mix Drinks or The Bon Vivant’s Companion”. Jerry Thomas is named as the author. There is a second book in the appendix. It is entitled “A Manual for the Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syups, etc. etc.”. This book is considered the first book on mixed drinks, which is why it is now considered a milestone in the history of bartending. [3]

However, we should not forget that there were books describing mixed drinks before this, and Harry Johnson also claims to have published a successful and important book on the subject before Jerry Thomas. This, however, has apparently not survived, or which appeared anonymously, and we do not know which it is. Personally, I consider Jerry Thomas’ book to be overrated compared to Harry Johnson’s work, just as Harry Johnson, in my perception, must also be considered the far more successful and important bartender even in his own time. It would go into too much detail to go into Harry Johnson’s biography at this point; a separate post will be devoted to this concern. Nevertheless, I have included Jerry Thomas’ book in my selection, because without a doubt it was an influential work, which is proven not least by the numerous new editions.

There is no doubt that Harry Johnson wrote his work himself. Jerry Thomas, on the other hand, does not seem to have contributed much to the book of which he is considered the author. David Wondrich writes about this: “I don’t think Thomas excercised much authorship even for the first edition [of “The Bartenders Guide” (1862)], besides contributing recipes for the American drinks; for the second (1876), some recipes sound like him, some don’t; for the third edition (1887), it seems very unlikely indeed that he had anything to do with it … Dick & Fitzgerald actually copyrighted a “Bar-Tender’s Guide, or Complete Encyclopaedia of Fancy Drinks, etc.” in June, 1859. This book was never released, or if it was no copies survive in any form. Nowhere on the copyright or announcements of the book’s publication is Jerry Thomas’ name mentioned. Some time between 1859 and 1862, clearly, one of the Principals of Dick & Fitzgerald–probably William Dick–discussed the project with Jerry Thomas, who put them straight. Jerry Thomas’ involvement is most likely confined to the actual bartender’s drinks–Toddies, Slings, Juleps, individual Punches, Cocktails, Crustas, some of the Fancy Drinks and a few others.[12]

Nevertheless, the book was an influential work, and must therefore not be omitted from my recommendation.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks

“Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks” by William Terrington was published in 1869. The author is less well-known than, for example, Jerry Thomas or Harry Craddock, but he should be held in equally high esteem by anyone with an interest in British mixed drinks. His book was well received when it first appeared. Not only does it explain how to make liqueurs, but with it we get the best possible picture today of the drinks that were enjoyed in the UK in high Victorian times, from punch and cup, to the iced American drinks that were slowly coming into fashion. It is also the first British book to describe cocktails. This makes it an important source for the history of these drinks, as it also offers us a glimpse into the British origins of, for example, the cocktail. Through this book, the British public also learned about American-style iced drinks. It was very popular, so much so that it was reprinted in 1872 and again in 1890. [13] [14] [16-722]

The book is worth a look, and in the preface William Terrington promises us: “Some of these preparations are, indeed, of a flavour so exquisite, that the epicure may well be tempted to exclaim “One sip / Will bathe the drooping spirit in delight /Beyond the bliss of dreams.” [15-V]

But one drop of bitterness remains: Unfortunately, we know nothing about the author. We cannot find any further information about him. Rather, there are indications that the name is a pseudonym. [16-722]

Sources
  1. http://www.bibulo.us/section-2the-bibulous-bibliography.html: The Bibulous Bibliography. 1862–1894 (Golden Age of Cocktail Drinking).
  2. https://en.everybodywiki.com/Oxford_Night_Caps Oxford Night Caps.
  3. http://www.boozehoundsblog.com/cocktails/2015/10/3/jerry-thomas-oxford-night-caps-and-defining-the-cocktail-book David Earle: Jerry Thomas, Oxford Night Caps, And Defining The Cocktail Book. 6. Oktober 2015.
  4. https://archive.org/details/venturesoflifead00dickrich/page/362/mode/2up?q=oxford Charles Dickens: The life and adventures of Nicholas Nickleby. London, 1839.
  5. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Nickleby Nicholas Nickleby.
  6. https://archive.org/details/cu31924029752791/page/n45/mode/2up?q=%22oxford+nightcaps%22 William Hone: The year book of daily recreation and information, concerning remarkable men and manners, times and seasons, solemnities and merry-makings, antiquities and novelities. London, 1832.
  7. https://archive.org/details/sim_albion-a-journal-of-news-politics-and-literature_1827-10-27_6_20/page/n5/mode/2up?q=%22oxford+night+caps%22 The Albion. Volume 6, issue 20. 27. Oktober 1827.
  8. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brasenose_College Brasenose College.
  9. https://www.ft.com/content/d6b025c8-02b8-11e2-9e53-00144feabdc0 The history cook: Oxford Night Caps.
  10. https://www.bnc.ox.ac.uk/downloads/The_Brazen_Nose_2018_Small.pdf Anonymus: The Brazen Nose. Volume 52, 2017-2018.
  11. https://euvslibrary.com/?p=347 Ansitatia Miller: Oxford Night Caps by Richard Cook.
  12. https://wiki.webtender.com/wiki/Jerry_Thomas Jerry Thomas.
  13. https://euvslibrary.com/?p=169 Anistatia Miller: Cooling Cups & Dainty Drinks by William Terrington (1872).
  14. https://sipsmith.com/william-terrington-and-the-surprising-history-of-cordial/ Anonymus: William Terrington and the Surprising History of Cordial. 26. Januar 2015.
  15. William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Collection of Recipes for „Cups“ and Other Compounded Drinks, and of General Information on Beverages of All Kinds. London & New York, George Routledge & Sons, 1869.
  16. David Wondrich & Noah Rothbaum (Hrsg.): The Oxford Companion to Spirits & Cocktails. ISBN 9780199311132. 2022.

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About

Hi, I'm Armin and in my spare time I want to promote bar culture as a blogger, freelance journalist and Bildungstrinker (you want to know what the latter is? Then check out "About us"). My focus is on researching the history of mixed drinks. If I have ever left out a source you know of, and you think it should be considered, I look forward to hearing about it from you to learn something new. English is not my first language, but I hope that the translated texts are easy to understand. If there is any incomprehensibility, please let me know so that I can improve it.

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