Drinks

From Gin Punch to Collins – Part 1: The Gin Punch

Gin Punch. Titelbild.

At the beginning of Collins’ is the Gin Punch. So let’s first look at why it was drunk and by whom, before we look at its further development.

Introduction

It all starts with the Gin Punch. So what does David Wondrich know about the Gin Punch? He enlightens us as follows: Gin had become the preferred spirit of the urban population in England in the second decade of the 18th century and in the 1730s the poor lower classes began to prepare a punch with gin. Because of the juniper contained in gin, doctors even began to prescribe gin punch as medicine. But it was not yet generally accepted by society. This happened only tentatively. It was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that it finally found its way into more distinguished society and Gin Punch was also offered in the most respectable inns, clubs, coffee houses and officers’ messes. [1-200] [1-201] [1-202]

How was a Gin Punch prepared?

According to David Wondrich, there were two methods of making a Gin Punch around 1830. The Cold Gin Punch was prepared like any other punch with lemon juice, sugar and water. For the Hot Gin Punch, he assumes that it was prepared like other hot punches and that lemon peel was used instead of lemon juice. [1-202]

We have examined the variants of the Whiskey Punch or Rum Punch in detail and, according to our own studies, only partially agree with this opinion. However, we do not want to deal with this in detail here, but refer to the corresponding post.

Unfortunately, no really old historical recipe has survived, or it was not written down. Therefore, one can only make assumptions about the preparation of a Gin Punch. For a Cold Gin Punch, David Wondrich suggests following Major Bird’s Brandy Punch and substituting gin for the cognac. For a Hot Gin Punch, he suggests taking a cue from Blackwood’s Hot Whiskey. [1-203]

Major Bird’s Brandy Punch

John Ashton: Social life in the reign of Queen Anne, 1882, Page 202 - Major Bird's Punch.
John Ashton: Social life in the reign of Queen Anne, 1882, Page 202 – Major Bird’s Punch. [3-202]

We had also used this punch when reconstructing the original cocktail. It is an old recipe, over 300 years old, because Major Bird had been in the spirits business since 1689. This is how hi punch is made: “Take one Quart [1.1365 litres] of Brandy, and it will bear 2 Quarts and a Pint [about 2.841 litres] of Spring Water; if you drink it very strong, then 2 Quarts of Water to a Quart of the Brandy, with 6 or 8 Lisbon Lemmons, and half a Pound [about 0.454 kg] of fine Loaf Sugar: Then you will find it to have a curious fine scent and flavour, and Drink and Taste as clean as Burgundy Wine.” [1-132] [3-202]

Of course, these are quantities that we don’t usually mix with these days. It gets interesting when you reduce the punch recipe to a cocktail glass. You then get a recipe of about 20 ml brandy, 40 ml water, 7.75 ml lemon juice and 4 grams sugar.

Blackwood’s Hot Whiskey

Noctes Ambrosianae XXXV. 1854. Whisky-Punch.
Noctes Ambrosianae XXXV. 1854. Whisky-Punch. [4-11]

David Wondrich calls this whiskey punch with reference to Blackwood’s Magazine, published in Edinburgh, “Blackwood’s Whisky Punch.” [1-188] The Noctes Ambrosianae were published in it.The original 1828 edition mentions a Whisky Toddy, [5-118] without any further comment on it. In the 1854 edition, however, there is a footnote with a recipe: “The mystery of making whisky-punch comes with practice. The sugar should be first dissolved in a small quantity of water, which must be what the Irish call “screeching hot.” Next throw in the whisky. Then add a thin shaving of fresh lemon peel. Then add the rest of water, so that the spirits will be the third of the mixture. Lastly. – Drink! Lemon juice is deleterious and should be eschewed.” [4-11]

The attentive reader will wonder why the text refers to a Whisky Toddy, but the footnote refers to a Punch. Well, obviously the two were mistakenly equated – we will write a separate paper on this and will go into detail about punch, toddy and their relatives.

Gin Punch as a medicine and as an enjoyment

After this general introduction to the Gin Punch, it is time to take a closer look at the historical sources. Although a recipe is often not given, we do learn about the occasions on which it was consumed and why. So let’s put the sources in chronological order. We will mainly look at the mentions of the Gin Punch up to the invention of the Garrick Club Punch and the Collins. Because the Gin Punch is important for their development.

So let’s look at the different aspects of the surviving sources. We begin with a medical consideration.

The Gin Punch as Medicine

In the following we have collected quotations that give us an insight into the contexts in which a Gin Punch was considered a medicine. They are partly repetitive in their statements; nevertheless, they are included here to show that the Gin Punch was still prescribed as a medicine in the second half of the 19th century. After the quotations, we give a brief first summary.

1771 & 1774

William Buchan: Domestic Medicine. 1774. Page 352 and 354.
William Buchan: Domestic Medicine. 1774. Page 352 and 354. [6-352] [6-354]

In 1774, Gin Punch was prescribed as a medicine: If one cannot pass water, i.e. in case of “a suppression of urine“, it is recommended to the patient as a drink, among other things, “and, if there is no inflammation, he may drink small gin-punch without acid.” [6-352]

William Buchan: Domestic Medicine. 1771. Page 319.
William Buchan: Domestic Medicine. 1771. Page 319. [7-319]

However, one must object here that a Gin Punch without acid is no longer a Punch, but a Toddy. It is also prescribed for kidney stones: “If the patient has been accustomed to generous liquors, he may drink small gin-punch without acid.” [6-354]

In a book published three years earlier by the same author, another warning is added: “But spirits must be used very sparingly, as everything that heats is hurtful.” [7-319]

1789

Mary Cole: The Lady's Complete Guide. 1789. Page 528.
Mary Cole: The Lady’s Complete Guide. 1789. Page 528. [8-528]

The Lady’s Complete Guide also writes about kidney stones in 1789: “If the patient has been accustomed to generous liquors, he may drink small gin-punch without acid.” [8-528]

1804

William Hunter: An Essay on the Diseases Incident to Indian Seamen, 1804, pages 82, 84, 85.
William Hunter: An Essay on the Diseases Incident to Indian Seamen, 1804, pages 82, 84, 85. [9-82] [9-94] [9-85]

In 1804, we read in William Hunter’s report from Sri Lanka: Extract from the remarks in the Sick Register of the 80th Regiment, Trincomalie, September 1798, transmitted to Doctor Ewart. THE Beriberi is a disease of a peculiar nature, which has been extremely frequent, and fatal amongst all the troops, both Europeans and natives in this settlement. … VARIOUS modes of cure have been attempted, in this disease; but I have of late uniformly pursued the following plan, with uncommon success. IN the more mild case, the patients are immediately put upon a course of calomel and squills. The perspiration and other evacuations are promoted by saline drinks, or small doses of antimonial or James‘s powder, and the strength supported by cordial liquors, most generally gin punch, which assists much the effect of the squills. By these medicines, the symptoms are very often removed, in the course of a few days; except the numbers of the extremities, which generally remain longer than the rest. Pedulivium and stimulant liniments are then ordered to the extremities, and the patients are put upon a tonic plan, of bark and wine, or porter, which is continued for some time after all the symptoms have disappeared. … THE men of the 80th Regiment have now seen such frequent instances of the disease, and of fatal consequences from it, that they seldom lose any time in applying for assistance, after they are attacked with the swelling, as they call it. From this circumstance, we now comparatively lose very few from the complaint. UPON looking over my returns, I find we have only lost two out of seventy-eight men, attacked with the disiease, in the course of the last six months.” [9-82] [9-84] [9-85] [32]

In this publication, Gin Punch is used to treat a disease called beriberi. It is not possible to say exactly what this was, because until the 19th and early 20th century, the term beriberi was used for a whole range of symptoms and not for a single distinguishable disease. Today, it is understood to mean a disease caused by a lack of vitamin B1. This can lead to oedema, i.e. water retention in the tissues. [10]

The mention of “bark and wine” as a medicine is interesting here. The bark can only be the bark of the cinchona tree with quinine as the active ingredient. A Gin Punch was therefore served together with wine that had been spiked with quinine. In this context, one might think of a Gin & Tonic, which also combines gin with quinine.

1810

John Brunnell Davis: A scientific and popular view of the fever of Walcheren.1810. Page 145-146.
John Brunnell Davis: A scientific and popular view of the fever of Walcheren.1810. Page 145-146. [11-145] [11-146]

In 1810, an article about the Walcheren fever states: “The plan of treatment which I latterly adopted in the Walcheren intermittent was the best which could be pursued in dropsy, … Purgative medicines … were interposed every forth or fifth day as long as the accumulation of water in the abdomen seemed to indicate the necessity of their employment.* I administered these medicines in every kind of dropsical affection, … while I allowed the sick, gin punch as a common beverage. By these preparatory means I was enabled soon to recur to the use of the bark, if the frequency of the paroxysms absolutely required it … .“ [11-145] [11-146]

What is this Walcheren Fever about? The Walcheren expedition was undertaken by the British in 1809. They were allied with Austria in the Austro-French War. They succeeded in taking the Dutch island of Walcheren. However, they had to leave the island again after a few months because about 20 to 25 soldiers died every day from a fever-like illness called Walcheren Fever. It is thought to have been malaria endemic to the area. The local population was not affected, as they were largely immune. [12] [13]

1818

James Johnson: The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions. 1818. Seite 233. - The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions. 1818. Page 233.
James Johnson: The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions. 1818. Seite 233. – The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions. 1818. Page 233. [16-233]

In 1818 it is again about beriberi, and the treatment is that already published before: “In the more mild cases, the patients are immediately put upon a course of calomel and squills. The perspiration and other evacuations are promoted by saline drinks, or small doses of antimonial or James‘s powder, and the strength supported by cordial liquors, most generally gin punch, which assists much the effect of the squills.” [16-231] [16-233]

1819

Adam Rees: The Cyclopedia. 1819. Diuretics.
Adam Rees: The Cyclopedia. 1819. Diuretics. [17-Diuretics]

In 1819 it is written: “It is, in fact, an extremly painful measure, to resist the urgent desire of drink, and as far as careful observation has gone, we believe it to have been decided that the use of drink is save in dropsy; and that the quantity of urine voided, where it is permited, is usually equal to the quantity of drink taken in. Sometimes it is even greater; especially when the drink is taken tepid, or is mixed with materials, that are slightly stimulant to the kidnies, such as weak gin punch, &c;” [17-Diuretics]

1822

Peter Donaldson: The Natural History of ... yellow malignant fever. 1822. Page 34-35.
Peter Donaldson: The Natural History of … yellow malignant fever. 1822. Page 34-35. [20-34] [20-35]

In 1822, Gin Punch is also prescribed for yellow fever: “Drs. G—– and M —– attended him the first ten days of the fever, had given him some salts, ordered him to drink hot brandy, or gin punch, laudanum &c.;” [20-35]

1830

J.P. Grant & M. T. Ward: Official papers on the medical statistics and topography of Malacca and Prince of Wales‘ Island and on the prevailing diseases of the Tenasserim Coast. 1830. Page 8.
J.P. Grant & M. T. Ward: Official papers on the medical statistics and topography of Malacca and Prince of Wales‘ Island and on the prevailing diseases of the Tenasserim Coast. 1830. Page 8. [21-8]

In 1830 the following appears in publication: “ANASARCA was rarely observed as an idiopathic affection. More frequently it was found to be the sequela of disease, particularly fever, for which the patient had been previously treated, and discharged from hospital. The fatal case, in its last stage, presented all the symptoms of well marked Beriberi. The treatment consisted principally in the exhibition of Tonics, drastic purgatives, and diuretics especially Digitalis. In one case where abundant effusion had taken place into all the cavities, nearly 400 drops of the Tincture were administered in the course of two days and two nights, with the most happy effect. The urine which had previously been very scanty, was discharged in quantities of, from six to eight pounds daily, and all the bad symptoms soon disappeared. The patient was carefully watched during the exhibition of the remedy; his strength was supported by Gin-punch frequently given, and water in which Cream of Tartar was diffused, was his common drink.“ [21-8]

1831

 

In 1831 it says on the subject “Of the treatment of beriberi. In mild cases Christie recommended Calomel with Squilla, or with other diuretic remedies, and the promotion of perspiration and other discharges by drinks and small doses of Antimonium, or by the well-known James powder, and finally to strengthen the forces, for which he used liqueurs, especially those prepared from ginger, Gin Punch, which at the same time promoted the effects of Squilla. By these remedies the symptoms are often removed within a few days, with the exception of the falling asleep of the extremities, which usually remains for some time.[25-518]

Moritz Hasper: Ueber die Natur und Behandlung der Krankheiten der Tropenländer. Erster Theil. 1831. Page 518.
Moritz Hasper: Ueber die Natur und Behandlung der Krankheiten der Tropenländer. Erster Theil. 1831. Page 518. [25-518]

– “Von der Behandlung mit Beriberi. In den mildern Fällen empfahl Christie Calomel mit Squilla, oder mit andern diuretischen Mitteln und Beförderung der Perspiration und anderer Ausleerungen durch Getränke und kleine Dosen Antimonium, oder durch das bekannte Jamespulver, und endlich die Kräfte zu stärken, wozu er Liqueure, besonders die von Ingwer bereiteten, gin punch, welcher zugleich die Wirkungen der Squilla befördere, anwendete. Durch diese Mittel werden die Symptome oft innerhalb weniger Tage entfernt, mit Ausnahme des Einschlafens der Extremitäten, das gewöhnlich längere Zeit noch zurückbleibt.” [25-518]

1834

James Ford: A Treatise On Dropsy. 1834. Page 51.
James Ford: A Treatise On Dropsy. 1834. Page 51. [28-51]

1834 is reported: “The second curative indication in dropsy is to remove the causes of this disease. … Tonic and stimulant medicines, with correspondent diet and regimen, are to be described. Cinchona, chalybeates, bitters, aromatics, as tending to promote the digestive powers, and as contributing to give general strength to the system, are therefore proper. … and Rhenish wine, as having a diuretic property, is frequently preferred. Gin is diuretic, and may, in those cases of dropsy which admit of the stronger stimulants, be advantageously allowed in the form of gin punch.” [28-51] [33]

 

1847

Theophiluis Redwood: Gray's supplement to the pharmacopoeia. 1847. Page 527.
Theophiluis Redwood: Gray’s supplement to the pharmacopoeia. 1847. Page 527. [29-527]

1847 is said about juniper: “Mr. Alexander says, that the oil, in doses of four drops, is the most powerful of all diuretics;” [29-527]

1848

Allan Web: Pathologia Indica, or The Anatomy of Indian Diseases. 1848. Page 286-287.
Allan Web: Pathologia Indica, or The Anatomy of Indian Diseases. 1848. Page 286-287. [27-286] [27-287]

In an 1848 book on the diseases of India, there are examples of Gin Punch being prescribed along with cinchona bark. [27-286] [27-287]

1863

Daniel Maclachlan: A practical treatise on the diseases and infirmities of advanced life. 1863. Page 266.
Daniel Maclachlan: A practical treatise on the diseases and infirmities of advanced life. 1863. Page 266. [22-266]

In 1863, a small amount of Gin Punch is still a suitable medicine to stimulate the kidneys in most cases of dropsy: “I know no better remedy, though in debilitated cases the practice requires caution. A similar plan of treatment should be pursued when the limbs are infiltrated; and, as in most dropsical cases there is much depression of the vital powers, small quantities of gin-punch are often beneficial in sustaining the strength and stimulating the kidneys.” [22-266]

First summary

Gin Punch was not only given for malaria. A weak Gin Punch was also prescribed for dropsy. It is interesting to note that malaria can also lead to dropsy. Due to malaria-related renal insufficiency, one can get anasarca, an oedema of the subcutaneous cell tissue. In this case, fluid is usually stored in soft tissues and occurs, for example, when there is an increase in fluid intake with reduced or absent urine excretion. [18] With malaria, it is not uncommon for circulatory disturbance of the kidney and acute kidney failure to occur. [14]

The reason for administering a Gin Punch is the juniper contained in the gin. This has a diuretic effect due to the kidney stimulating substances contained in it and thus promotes urination. However, it should only be used in combination with other diuretics. Especially when juniper is used as the only drug, an overdose can easily occur. Such an overdose can lead to kidney damage, even kidney failure. [15]

The alcohol contained in the gin punch also acts as a diuretic. [19] If you would like to know more about this, please see our post on the Morning Glory Fizz.

Against this background, we can easily understand why a light Gin Punch was prescribed for malaria and dropsy, along with other diuretics. The intention was to strengthen the kidney function and promote urine excretion in order to drain water.

The Gin Punch as a Pleasure Drink

However, the Gin Punch was not only administered as medicine, but was also drunk for pleasure. The following sources may shed light on this.

1776

In 1776, James Boswell, the Scottish lawyer and biographer of Samuel Johnson, the most quoted English author after William Shakespeare, wrote in his diary: “I drank rather too much gin punch. It was a new liquor to me, and I liked it much.” [1-201] [30] [31-36]

1810

Timothy Bobbin’s book “The passions, humourously delineated”, published in 1810, [23] published in 1810, also deals with the Gin Punch. The plate with the name “Delight” is signed as follows:

Timothy Bobbin: Delight. 1810.
Timothy Bobbin: Delight. 1810. [23-XVI]

„PLATE XVI.
WHAT various ways we diff‘rent mortals press,
To that fam‘d goal, the world calls happiness!
Some take ambition‘s high and slipp‘ry road;
And some rich viands make their chiefest God.
Some wine, some women; some love cards and dice;
Some think full bags all human bliss comprise.
Some love retirement; some for pleasure roam,
And some for books do starve themselves at home.
But here old merry Kate, and Nan, and Bess,
Find nearer ways to climb happiness:
Gin, punch and flip, are all their sole delight;
They laugh at th‘ world, and swear they‘re only right.“

1827

The Sporting Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 123, December 1827, page 133.
The Sporting Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 123, December 1827, page 133. [24-183]

By the 1820s at the latest, Gin Punch can be considered something accepted even by the aristocracy, for an article from 1827 states: “His Lordship was in just the right trim to receive us. … and a glass of gin punch and an hour‘s gossip closed the evening of this day.” [24-183]

1836

Oxford by Day and Night. Monthly Magazine, 1836, page 490-491.
Oxford by Day and Night. Monthly Magazine, 1836, page 490-491. [26-490][26-491]

In 1836, a poem entitled “Oxford, by Day and Night” states: “Gin punch! the order of the night is. Gin punch! the Oxonian’s great delight is, And being brewed both hot and strong, Six tumblers make the limbs unstable, And send the freshmen clean along, The hearth-rug, or beneath the table. While hardier bacchanals their course Thro’ “Geneva’s lakes” exulting urge, And standing o’er him, shriek till hoarse, The fallen freshman’s drunken dirge.” [26-490] [26-491]

Second summary

The Gin Punch appeared late; at first it was prepared with rum or brandy. But since the simpler people also wanted to drink a punch, but could not afford expensive spirits, they resorted to gin, while the aristocracy and the upper class used more expensive spirits. This is certainly one aspect, because back then it was no different from today: people wanted to share in the glamour of the rich and beautiful and also drink punch. It is comparable to today: as soon as Madonna drinks a special water, many want to do the same and also buy it to be close to her star. [34] [35]

However, this consideration overlooks an essential aspect, namely the role played by the British Navy. The Royal Navy formed in the course of the 16th century during the war against Spain and became a permanent institution during the 17th century. In particular, the conflicts with France from 1690 onwards, which lasted until the period of the Napoleonic Wars ending in 1815, led to the building of a large fleet dominating the world’s oceans. [36] In our paper on punch, we will show that it was closely associated with maritime navigation; people were already drinking it at the beginning of the 17th century, it was ubiquitous among sailors, and by the end of the 17th century at the latest, it was also popular among the upper classes. From their missions in the various regions of the world, the sailors knew the punch, and also the Gin Punch, as medicine. It was also prescribed as a medicine in civilian society. It should therefore not be ignored that its use as a medicine may have played a significant role in making the Gin Punch popular, not only among the higher classes, but also among the lower classes.

In a separate post, we will look at what types of gin were consumed in the 19th century. It is commonly said that it was of poor quality. But it cannot be said so sweepingly. Cheap gin was certainly adulterated and not necessarily beneficial to health. Nevertheless, unsweetened, high-quality gin was available. However, this was somewhat more expensive and was therefore certainly only drunk by the wealthier. This explains why the Gin Punch was able to evolve into the Collins and was drunk by the higher-ups in society. The original Gin Punch fell into oblivion and was superseded by its further development in the form of Collins.

The Gin Punch, which was served at the Garrick Club, must be regarded as an intermediate stage. It is characterised by the use of soda water and maraschino. Important for this evolution, however, was an essential discovery: how fizzy water can be produced artificially. We will report on this in the next post in this series.

Sources
  1. David Wondrich: Punch. The delights (and dangers) of the flowing bowl. ISBN 978-0-399-53616-8. November 2010.
  2. David Wondrich: Imbibe! 2. Auflage, ISBN 978-0-399-17261-8. 2015.
  3. https://archive.org/stream/sociallifeinrei00ashtgoog#page/n224/mode/2up/search/punch John Ashton: Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne: Taken from Original Sources. Volume 1. London, Chatto & Windus, 1882.
  4. https://archive.org/details/noctesambrosiana003wils/page/10 William Maginn et. al.: Noctes Ambrosianae. Vol III. January, 1828 – April 1830. Page 10 (Januar 1828).
  5. https://archive.org/details/blackwoodsedinb170unkngoog/page/n137 Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, Noctes Ambrosianae No. XXXV, January 1828, page 118.
  6. https://archive.org/details/b30547660/page/352?q=%22gin+punch%22 William Buchan: Domestic Medicine; or, A treatise on the prevention and cure of diseases by regimen and simple medicines ; With an appendix containing a dispensatory. For the use of private practitioners. 3. edition. London, 1774.
  7. https://archive.org/details/2544041R.nlm.nih.gov/page/n333 William Buchan: Domestic Medicine; or, The Family Physician. Philadelphia, R. Aitken, 1771.
  8. https://archive.org/details/b2877730x/page/528?q=%22gin+punch%22 Mary Cole: The Lady’s Complete Guide; or Cookery and Confectionary in all their Branches. London, 1789.
  9. https://archive.org/details/b22007234/page/84?q=%22gin+punch%22 William Hunter: An essay on the diseases incident to Indian seamen, or Lascars, on long voyages. Calcutta, 1804.
  10. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beriberi Beriberi.
  11. https://archive.org/details/b2151303x/page/144?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 John Brunnell Davis: A scientific and popular view of the fever of Walcheren and its consequences as they appeared in the British troops returned from the late expedition: with an account of the morbid anatomy of the body and the efficacy of drastic purges and mercury in the treatment of this disease. London, 1810.
  12. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walcheren-Expedition Walcheren-Expedition.
  13. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%BCnfter_Koalitionskrieg Fünfter Koalitionskrieg.
  14. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria Malaria.
  15. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wacholder Wacholder.
  16. https://archive.org/details/b21914461/page/n247?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 James Johnson: The influence of tropical climates on European constitutions. To which is added tropical hygiene; or the preservation of health in all hot climates, (adapted to general perusal). 2. edition. Portsmouth, 1818.
  17. https://archive.org/details/b24991454_0012/page/n57?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 Abraham Rees: The cyclopaedia; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences and literature. Vol. xii. London, 1819.
  18. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anasarka Anasarka.
  19. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diuretikum Diuretikum.
  20. https://archive.org/details/b2194121x/page/n495?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 Peter Donaldson: The natural history of the rise, progress and termination of the epidemic inflammation, commonly called yellow malignant fever, which prevailed in the city of New-York, during the autumn of 1822. New York, 1822.
  21. https://archive.org/details/b21949062/page/n43?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 J.P. Grant & M. T. Ward; Official papers on the medical statistics and topography of Malacca and Prince of Wales’ Island and on the prevailing diseases of the Tenasserim Coast. Pinang, The Government Press, 1830. Darin: M.T. Ward: Notes, On the Phagedaenic Ulcer, and other diseases prevalent among the Native Troops at Malacca, in the year 1827-28, with Tables and Cases.
  22. https://archive.org/details/b21496365/page/266?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 Daniel Maclachlan: A practical treatise on the diseases and infirmities of advanced life. London, John Churchill & Sons, 1863.
  23. https://archive.org/details/passionshumourou00bobb/page/n59?q=%22gin+punch%22 Timothy Bobbin: The passions, humourously delineated. London, Edward Orme, 1810. Plate XVI.
  24. https://archive.org/details/sportingmagazin23unkngoog/page/n147?q=%22gin+punch%22 The Sporting Magazine. Vol. 21, No. 123, December 1827.
  25. https://archive.org/details/b21356063_0001/page/518?q=%22gin+punch%22 Moritz Hasper: Ueber die Natur und Behandlung der Krankheiten der Tropenländer. Erster Theil. Leipzig, C.H.F. Hartmann, 1831.
  26. https://archive.org/details/monthlymagazineo22lond/page/490?q=%22gin+punch%22 Oxford by Day and Night. In: The Monthly Magazine. Number 141. Volume 22. November 1836.
  27. https://books.google.de/books?id=viUEAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA1-PA286&lpg=RA1-PA286&dq=cinchona+gin+punch&source=bl&ots=AIKIopLxQV&sig=ACfU3U1fkmpX_qvBz0Pd8swIO0RDJaA8tw&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwia9riU_-bkAhVO6aQKHfJdBbwQ6AEwF3oECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=cinchona%20gin%20punch&f=false Allan Webb: Pathologia Indica, or the anatomy of Indian diseases, based upon morbid specimens, from all parts of the Indian Empire in the museum of the Calcutta medical college; illustrated by detailed cases; with the prescriptions and treatments employed, and comments, physiological, historical, and practical. Second edition. Calcutta, 1848.
  28. https://books.google.de/books?id=0zbrIXbAK9UC&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=gin+dropsy&source=bl&ots=0zk1m27AOU&sig=ACfU3U2CBvsHwpMZFbcT-6Ijq-oooqi7tw&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwin0aqTnOfkAhWSiFwKHUqODxwQ6AEwAXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=gin%20dropsy&f=false James Ford: A treatise on dropsy, exhibiting its nature, causes, forms, symptoms, principles of treatment, and practical application of these, in the use of the various remedies employed for its cure. Edinburgh, 1834.
  29. https://archive.org/details/b21687195/page/526 E. Teophilus Redwood: Gray’s supplement to the pharmacopoeia; being a concise but comprehensive dispensatory and manual of facts and formulae, for the chemist and druggist and medical practioner. London, 1847.
  30. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Johnson Samuel Johnson.
  31. Tristan Stephenson: The Curious Bartender’s Gin Palace. ISBN 978-1-84975-701-0. London & New York, 2016.
  32. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wei%C3%9Fe_Meerzwiebel Weiße Meerzwiebel und https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drimia_maritima Drimia maritima.
  33. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalybeate Chalybeate.
  34. https://utopia.de/ratgeber/wie-konzerne-wasser-zu-geld-machen/ 7 Wasser, die dem gesunden Menschenverstand wehtun. By Martin Tillich, 22. March 2019.
  35. https://www.handelsblatt.com/unternehmen/industrie/norwegisches-mineralwasser-voss-rueckt-gemeinsam-mit-dem-popstar-ins-rampenlicht-madonna-weckt-des-wassers-mehrwert/2371390.html Madonna weckt des Wassers Mehrwert. By Ingo Reich, 26. July 2004.
  36. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Navy Royal Navy.

Historical recipes

1827 Oxford Night Caps. Seite 12. Gin Punch.

The same as Oxford Punch, only omit
the rum, brandy, and shrub, and substitute
two bottles of gin.

Seite 10. Oxford Punch.

Recipe.
Extract the juice from the rind of three
lemons, by rubbing loaf sugar on it.
The peeling of two Seville oranges and two
lemons, cut extremely thin. The juice of
four Seville oranges and ten lemons. Six
glasses of calves-feet jelly in a liquid state.
The above to be put into a jug, and stirred
well together. Pour two quarts of boiling
water on the mixture, cover the jug closely,
and place it near the fire for a quarter of an
hour. Then strain the liquid through a sieve
into a punch bowl or jug, sweeten it with a
bottle of capillaire, and add half a pint of
white wine, a pint of French brandy, a pint
of Jamaica rum, and a bottle of orange
shrub; the mixture to be stirred as the spi-
rits are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet,
add loaf sugar gradually in small quantities,
or a spoonful or two of capillaire. To be
served up either hot or cold b. The Oxford
Punch, when made with half the quantity
of spirituous liquors, and placed in an ice
tub for a short time, is a pleasant summer
beverage.
In making this Punch, limes are some-
times used instead of lemons, but they are
by no means so wholesome.

b Ignorant servants and waiters sometimes put oxalic
acid into punch to give it a flavour; such a practice can
not be too severely censured.

1830 Anonymus: The Cook’s Complete Guide. Seite 641. Gin Punch. https://archive.org/details/b2153391x/page/640?q=%22gin+punch%22

Is made exactly in the same manner, except that instead
of half a pint of rum, and a quarter of a pint of brandy one
pint of gin is added.

Seite 641. Common Punch.

Take a tea-spoonful of the acid salt of lemons, a quarter
of a pound of sugar, a quart of boiling water, half a pint of
rum, and a quarter of a pint of brandy, add a small piece of
lemon-peel, if agreeable, or a very little of the essence of
lemon.

1834 Anonymus: The Housekeeper’s Guide. Seite 355. Gin Punch. https://archive.org/details/b21504581/page/354?q=%22gin+punch%22

766. Punch – may be made by adding to a quart of
No. 763, half a pint of rum, and quarter of a pint of
brandy, with or without the addition of a tea-cupful
of porter.
The more regular way of making punch, is to rub off
the yellow rind of lemmons with loaf sugar; then squeeze
the lemon juice to the sugar and thoroughly mix it.
Then add a tea cup of soft boiling water and stir till it
is cold: then Madeira or Sherry, rum and brandy, in
equal parts, or in any proportion that may be pre-
ferred; and whenn well mixed, as much more boiling
water as will bring it to the strength required; or, all the
water may be added, when the lemon juice and sugar are
well mixed with the small quantity of water, and then the
liquor added. The proportions are something like the
following: – one fourth wine, one fourth spirits, two
fourths water. To each quart two ounces of loaf sugar
and half a large lemon. Gin punch is made with that
liquor instead of brandy and rum.

1835 Oxford Night Caps. Seite 13 . Gin Punch.

The same as Oxford Punch, only omit
the rum, brandy, and shrub, and substitute
two bottles of gin.

Seite 8. Oxford Punch.

Recipe.
Extract the juice from the rind of three
lemons, by rubbing loaf sugar on it.
The peeling of two Seville oranges and two
lemons, cut extremely thin. The juice of
four Seville oranges and ten lemons. Six
glasses of calves-feet jelly in a liquid state.
The above to be put into a jug, and stirred
well together. Pour two quarts of boiling
water on the mixture, cover the jug closely,
and place it near the fire for a quarter of an
hour. Then strain the liquid through a sieve
into a punch bowl or jug, sweeten it with a
bottle of capillaire, and add half a pint of
white wine, a pint of French brandy, a pint
of Jamaica rum, and a bottle of orange
shrub; the mixture to be stirred as the spi-
rits are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet,
add loaf sugar gradually in small quantities,
or a spoonful or two of capillaire. To be
served up either hot or cold b. The Oxford
Punch, when made with half the quantity
of spirituous liquors, and placed in an ice
tub for a short time, is a pleasant summer
beverage.
In making this Punch, limes are some-
times used instead of lemons, but they are
by no means so wholesome.

b Ignorant servants and waiters sometimes put oxalic
acid into punch to give it a flavour; such a practice can
not be too severely censured.

1845 Arnold James Cooley: A Cyclopedia of Practical Receipts. Seite 688. Gin Punch.

Yellow peel and
juice of 1 lemon; gin 3/4 pint; water 1 3/4
pints; sherry 1 glass; mix.

1847 Oxford Night Caps. Seite 16. Gin Punch.

The same as Oxford Punch, only omit the
rum, brandy, and shrub, and substitute two
bottles of gin.

Seite 11. Oxford Punch.

Extract the juice from the rind of three
lemons, by rubbing loaf sugar on them. The
peeling of two Seville oranges and two lemons,
cut extremely thin. The juice of four Seville
oranges and ten lemons. Six glasses of calves-
feet jelly in a liquid state. The above to be
put into a jug, and stirred well together. Pour
two quarts of boiling water on the mixture, cover
the jug closely, and place it near the fire for a
quarter of an hour. Then strain the liquid
through a sieve into a punch bowl or jug,
sweeten it with a bottle of capillaire, and add half
a pint of white wine, a pint of French brandy, a
pint of Jamaica rum, and a bottle of orange
shrub; the mixture to be stirred as the spirits
are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet, add
loaf sugar gradually in small quantities, or a
spoonful or two of capillaire. To be served up
either hot or cold b. The Oxford Punch, when
made with half the quantity of spirituous liquors
and placed in an ice tub for a short time, is a
pleasant summer beverage.
In making this Punch, limes are sometimes
used instead of lemons, but they are by no
means so wholesome.

b Ignorant servants and waiters sometimes put oxalic
acid into punch to give it a flavour; such a practice
cannot be too severely censured.

1845 Arnold James Cooley: A Cyclopedia of Practical Receipts. Seite 688. Gin Punch. https://archive.org/details/acyclopaediapra00coolgoog/page/n701/mode/2up

Yellow peel and
juice of 1 lemon; gin 3/4 pint; water 1 3/4
pints; sherry 1 glass; mix.

1856 Arnold James Cooley: A cyclopaedia of practical receipts. Seite 1078. Gin Punch. https://archive.org/details/b21535528/page/1078?q=%22Gin+Punch%22 :

From the yellow peel of
1/2 a lemon; juice of 1 lemon; strongest gin,
3/4 pint; water 1 3/4 pint; sherry, 1 glass-
ful.

1860 Oxford Night Caps. Seite 16. Gin Punch.

The same as Oxford Punch, only omit the
rum, brandy, and shrub, and substitute two
bottles of gin.

Seite 11. Oxford Punch.

Extract the juice from the rind of three
lemons, by rubbing loaf sugar on them.
The peeling of two Seville oranges and two
lemons, cut extremely thin. The juice of
four Seville oranges and ten lemons. Six
glasses of calvesfeet jelly in a liquid state.
The above to beput into a jug, and stirred
well together. Pour two quarts of boiling
water on the mixture, cover the jug closely,
and place it near the fire for a quarter of an
hour. Then strain the liquid through a
sieve into a punch bowl or jug, sweeten it
with a bottle of capillaire, and add half a
pint of white wine, a pint of French brandy,
a pint of Jamaica rum, and a bottle of orange
shrub; the mixture to be stirred as the spirits
are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet, add
loaf sugar gradually in small quantities, or a
spoonful or two of capillaire. To be served
up either hot or cold 7. The Oxford Punch,
when made with half the quantity of spirit-
uous liquors and placed in an ice tub for a
short time, is a pleasant summer beverage.
In making this Punch, limes are some-
times used instead of lemons, but they are
by no means so wholesome.

7 Ignorant servants and waiters sometimes put oxalic
acid into punch to give it a flavour; such a practice
cannot be too severely censured.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch à la Terrington.

Rub the rind of
1/2 lemon with a 4 oz. lump of sugar; add the juice
of 3 lemons (strained), 1 pint of good gin, wine-
glassful of Chartreuse (green), pint of shaven ice,
1 bottle of German seltzer water

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch à la J. Day.

The oleo-saccharum
of 1 and strained juice of 2 lemons, pint of Old
Tom, wine-glass of Curaçoa, teaspoonful of sugar,
1 sprig of mint, pint of crushed Lake ice, 2 bottles
of aerated lemonade or soda-water.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch à la Burroughs.

Juice of 1 lemon,
1 gill of pine-apple syrup, 1 pint of gin, 1 quart
of tea (green). If preferred as a cool punch, use
broken ice instead of tea.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch, or Spider.

Gill of gin, bottle of
aerated lemonade, lump of Lake ice: a liqueur-glass
of citronelle is an improvement.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch à la Gooch.

Pint of Geneva, gill
of Kirschwasser, bottle of sparkling champagne,
quart of seltzer or Vichy water.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 220. Gin Punch for Bottling.

The oleo-saccharum
of 3 lemons, dissolved in 1 pint of lemon-juice; add
1/2 gill essence of Angelica, and 3 pints of good
gin; 1/2 pint calves-foot jelly; sweeten to taste;
dilute, when required for use, with liquor.

1869 William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Seite 221. Gin Punch à la Fuller.

Pint of Kentish cherry-
juice, 1 drop essence of bitter almonds, 2 pints of
good unsweetened gin; mix; sweeten to taste; add
water or shaven ice if required.

We have not included more recent recipes in this collection.

explicit capitulum
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About

Hi, I'm Armin and in my spare time I want to promote bar culture as a blogger, freelance journalist and Bildungstrinker (you want to know what the latter is? Then check out "About us"). My focus is on researching the history of mixed drinks. If I have ever left out a source you know of, and you think it should be considered, I look forward to hearing about it from you to learn something new. English is not my first language, but I hope that the translated texts are easy to understand. If there is any incomprehensibility, please let me know so that I can improve it.

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