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Curaçao, Part 6 – Curaçao recipes

Curaçao - Teil 6. Titelbild.

In this part, we will look at the recipes for Curaçao. Which ones were published by Pierre Duplais in 1855 and how was curaçao made according to other authors?

In describing the Curaçao recipes, we will now proceed a little differently than usual, because we will deviate from the chronological sorting. Instead, we start with Pierre Duplais’ information from 1855. After getting an idea of how he thought a curaçao should be made, we look back into the past and ask ourselves how this spirit was made before and how far its roots go.

1855 Pierre Duplais

Pierre Duplais wrote an important and significant book on the distillation and preparation of liqueurs. It was published in 1855 under the title “Textbook on Liqueurs and the Distillation of Spirits; or, The Modern Liqueurist and Distiller”.: “Traité des liqueurs, et de la distillation des alcools; ou, Le liquoriste et le distillateur modernes”. In his distilling book, Pierre Duplais gives extensive information on the production of curaçao, of which he knows numerous variations. What does he have to tell us?


We will not go into detail about the different substances used by Pierre Duplais to colour the liqueurs, i.e. red, yellow, caramel and blue, [1-201] [1-202] [1-203] [1-204] [1-205] [1-206] [1-207] because the statements already made about colouring should suffice for this post. However, specifically for Curaçao, he makes these statements: He obtains the colouring for a ‘Curaçao demi-fin’ from brazilwood and pernambuco wood and describes in detail how it is produced. [1-207] For the colouring of the ‘Curaçao surfin’ he uses only pernambuco wood. He writes that potassium carbonate should be used because it dissolves the colour better from the wood. Since the colouring becomes a violet red, one should also add tartar to correct it to a dark red. [1-207] [1-208] Bluewood could also be used to colour curaçao, although this substance was little known among liqueur makers. [1-208]

Information on the alcohol content

Pierre Duplais does not write of vol% but names the alcohol content with degrees (°). There used to be different degree units:

  • The degree Stoppani, named after the German instrument maker Franz Nikolaus Stoppani and his brother, was mainly used in Germany for the determination of alcohol content. [2] [4]
  • The degree Tralles, named after the German physicist Johann Georg Tralles, was used mainly in Germany for the determination of alcohol content. [2] [5]
  • The degree Sikes, named after the British inventor Bartholomew Sikes, was used in Great Britain for the determination of alcohol content until 1980. [2] [6]
  • The degree Gay-Lussac, named after the French physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, was used mainly in France for the determination of alcohol content. [2] [7]

The degree Gay-Lussac will be the one used by Pierre Duplais. It corresponds to the percentages by volume commonly used today, with a negligible inaccuracy. [7]

Having said this, we can now turn to the recipes of Pierre Duplais.


In the production of a curaçao, Pierre Duplais uses preliminary products. These are the following:

Esprit de curaçao ordinaire:

  • 7.5 kg of ordinary bitter orange peel,
  • 2.5 kg of dried orange peel,
  • 60 l of alcohol at 85°,
  • distilled and rectified, yields 50 l. [1-228]

Esprit de curaçao de Hollande:

  • 10 kg genuine Dutch curaçao peels,
  • 75 l. alcohol distilled to 85°,
  • distilled, yields 50 l. [1-229]

Infusion de curaçao:

  • 5 kg Dutch curaçao peels,
    10 l alcohol at 85°,
    Leave to infuse for 8 to 10 days, strain and filter. [1-232]

In addition, he uses an “essence de Portugal”, by which he understands the oil of oranges; [1-441] “essence de girofle”, which is probably oil of cloves; [1-122] “essence de curaçao destilée”, by which we must understand bitter orange oil, and not at all from real curaçao oranges, but from bitter orange oranges from Italy, Portugal or France; [1-132] and “esprit d’oranges”, an orange distillate. [1-227]

Let us now turn to the curaçao recipes of his book. However, we do not want to quote them in detail. We will content ourselves with summarising them. Pierre Duplais typifies the liqueurs as follows:

Liqueures ordinaire

The “ordinary liqueurs”, for that is what “liqueures ordinaire” means, consist of

  • 25 l of alcohol at 85°,
  • 12.5 kg of sugar,
  • 66 l of water,
  • essence as indicated in the recipes. [1-258] [1-337]

Accordingly, a curaçao of this type consists of

  • 8 l esprit de curaçao ordinaire,
  • 17 l of alcohol at 85°,
  • 12.5 kg sugar,
  • 66 l of water,
  • amber coloured with caramel and a little couleur de curaçao demi-fin. [1-260]

or alternatively of

  • 45 gr essence de curaçao destillé,
  • 45 gr essence de Portugal,
  • 3 gr essence de girofle,
  • dark yellow coloured with caramel,[1-338]
  • the recipe is probably still missing the necessary amount of sugar.

Liqueures doubles

“Double liqueurs” consist of

  • 50 l alcohol at 85°,
  • 25 kg of sugar.
  • Double liqueurs contain twice the amount of “parfum”. [1-263] [1-264]

A curaçao of this type consists of

  • 10 l esprit de curaçao ordinaire;
  • 40 l of alcohol at 85°,
  • 25 kg of sugar,
  • 33 l of water,
  • strongly coloured yellow with caramel and a little couleur de curaçao demi-fin. [1-265]

Liqueurs demi-fines

“Semi-fine liqueurs” consist of

A curaçao of this type consists of.

  • 12 l esprit de curaçao ordinaire,
  • 15 cl infusion de curaçao,
  • 16 l alcohol 85°,
  • 25 kg sugar,
  • 55 l of water,
  • coloured with couleur de curaçao demi-fin and, if the colouring is too red, a few drops of tartaric acid to make the liqueur amber again. If necessary, add a little caramel to give the hue more body. [1-269]

or alternatively of

  • 60 gr essence de curaçao destillé,
  • 20 gr essence de Portugal,
  • 4 gr essence de girofle,
  • dark yellow coloured with caramel, [1-340]
  • the recipe is probably still missing the necessary amount of sugar.

Liqueures fines

“Fine liqueurs” consist of the same amount of alcohol and sugar, except for curaçao. Some producers vary the amount of sugar. They contain 370 g/l, depending on the selling price, but Pierre Duplais suggests 437.5 g: [1-273]

  • 32 l alcohol at 85°,
  • 43.75 kg sugar,
  • 39 l of water. [1-341]

A curaçao of this type consists of

  • 25 l Esprit de curaçao de Hollande,
  • 7 l of esprit d’oranges,
  • 25 cl infusion de curaçao,
  • 43.75 kg of sugar,
  • 39 l of water,
  • coloured with 4 l couleur pour curaçao surfin. With a few drops of tartaric acid, the colouring is brought back to amber. If blue wood is used for the colouring, add 4 l of alcohol at 85°. [1-274]

or alternatively of

  • 70 gr essence de curaçao destillé,
  • 25 gr essence de Portugal,
  • 5 gr essence de girofle [clove];
  • sufficient quantity of infusion amère de curaçao, coloured with pernambuco wood or bluewood, [1-342]
  • the recipe is probably still missing the necessary amount of sugar.

Liqueures surfines

P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs. 1855, page 303-304.
P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs. 1855, page 303-304. [1-303] [1-304]

“Extra-fine liqueurs” are divided into three types: French (françaises), foreign (étrangères) and from the islands (des îles). [1-280] The island liqueurs are described as follows: “For more than a century, the liqueurs of the islands have acquired an extraordinary reputation, due to the smoothness of the fragrance, the softness of the flavour and the velvetiness that distinguish them. … Most island liqueurs that come from Martinique, Guadeloupe or Barbados are prepared with aromatics from the plants of these countries … . The liqueurs of the islands are prepared in the same way as the French Surfines liqueurs: the proportions of alcohol and sugar are invariable, namely: 40 litres of rectified aromatic spirit and 56 kilos of sugar.[1-303] [1-304]

“Les liqueurs des îles, depuis plus d’un siècle, ont acquis une renommée extraordinaire due à la suavité de parfum, à la finesse de goût et au velouté qui les distinguent. … La plupart des liqueurs des îles, qui viennent de la Martinique, de la Guadeloupe ou des Barbades, sont préparées avec des aromates tirés des végétaux de ces pays … . Les liqueurs des iles se préparent de la même manière que les liqueurs surfines françaises: les proportions d’alcool et de sucre sont invariables, savoir: 40 litres d’esprit parfumé rectifié, et 56 kilos de sucre.” [1-303] [1-304]

Such a liqueur generally consists of 562.5 g of sugar per litre (22° on the syrup scale). Some liqueurists sweeten only up to 500 g (20° on the syrup scale). [1-280]

A curaçao of this type consists of

  • 5 kg of peel of curaçao de Hollande
  • peel of 80 fresh oranges
  • 54 l of alcohol at 85°
  • water
  • This gives 36 litres distilled and rectified. To this is added:
  • 56 kg of sugar dissolved in 22 kg of water,
  • coloured with 4 litres of couleur alcoolique, 30 cl infusion d’curaçao; these two are made up to 100 litres with water. The curaçao should be amber, this is achieved by adding tartaric acid. If a blue wood colouring is used, add 4 l of alcohol to 85°. [1-289]
P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs. 1855, page 289-299.
P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs. 1855, page 289-299. [1-289] [1-290]

Pierre Duplais writes: “Often curaçao, although clear when viewed through a small glass, appears cloudy when viewed from above; this effect, due to an excess of colour, is desired by some people. The curaçao surfin is sometimes taken with water: It turns pink when water is added. The transformation of colour surprises and charms the public, who mistakenly think it is a proof of quality. The infusion de curaçao is used to give the liqueur a slight orange bitterness; the quantity indicated may be increased or decreased according to the strength of the infusion or the wishes of the producer.” If colouring is omitted, white curaço is obtained. [1-289] [1-290]

„Souvent le curaçao, quoique très-limpide lorsqu’on le regarde à travers un petit verre, parait trouble en le regardant en dessus; cet effet, dû à un excès de couleur, est demandé par quelques personnes. Le curaçao surfin se prend quelquefois avec de l’eau: il devient rose par l’addition de cette dernière. La transformation de couleur étonne et charme le public, qui la regarde bien à tort comme une preuve de qualité. L’infusion de curaçao s’emploie pour donner à la liqueur une légère amertume d’orange; la quantité indiquée peut être augmentée ou diminuée suivant la force de cette infusion ou le gré du fabricant. … Le curaçao blanc se prépare de la même manière, en remplaçant seulement la couleur alcoolique par une même quantité d’esprit 3/6.[1-289] [1-290]

In the case of foreign liqueurs, says Pierre Dublais, the proportions of the ingredients are not fixed. [1-311] For him, a foreign “curaçao de Hollande” consists of

  • 8 kg of peel of curaçao de Hollande,
  • peel of 80 fresh oranges,
  • 54 l of alcohol at 85°,
  • Further prepared as described for liqueures surfin. To the 36 l of distillate add:
  • 60 cl infusion de curaçao
  • 4 l alcoholic colour of pernambuco wood,
  • 50 kg of sugar,
  • 25 l of water. [1-312]


For Pierre Duplais, curaçao is thus, generally speaking, a liqueur consisting of distilled orange and bitter orange peel, sugar, alcohol and water. He alternatively states the possibility of preparing it only with previously extracted oils, and only then uses clove oil as an additional spice.

Curaçao recipes before 1855

So now that we have worked out what a curaçao liqueur is for Pierre Duplais, and he has enlightened us about the fact that curaçao originated in Amsterdam at the beginning of the 18th century, we should ask ourselves what the recipes for curaçao that appeared before him were like. We have found general references to using curaçao orange peel for such a liqueur, as we have shown these are bitter orange peel, which usually did not come from Curaçao, but there is silence about the other ingredients. However, this will probably not have been done because something had to be left out, but because these peels were the only ingredient besides alcohol, water and sugar. Pierre Duplais’ recipes already suggested this, and the only older recipe we could find also speaks of it.

Anonymus: Apicius redivivus. 1817, #474.
Anonymus: Apicius redivivus. 1817, #474. [8-#473]

In 1817, a recipe for Curaçao is published: “Curaçao. (No. 474.) Pour half a pint of boiling water on three ounces of fine thin cut Seville orange-peel that has been dried and pounded in a marble mortar; stop it [cl]ose: when it is cold, add to it a quart of brandy; let it steep fourteen days: decant it clear, and add to it a quarter pint of clarified sugar; to prepare which, see the next receipt. Obs . — This is the best way of making this best of liqueurs, which is not merely an agreeable cordial, but an essential friend to the stomach.[8-#474]

In this recipe, the question arises as to which basic spirit was meant. In English, brandy refers to both cognac and brandy made from grapes as well as brandy made from other basic ingredients. In German, for example, one is more precise and distinguishes this by different designations. [9] [10] So did they mean a brandy made from grapes here? Pierre Duplais, in any case, does not seem to have used it.

The use of curaçao peel before 1855

Now, if Curaçao was a liqueur made only with the bitter peels of bitter oranges – and later, in the case of Pierre Duplais, additionally with the peels of sweet oranges – and this was generally known, then of course one does not need to find specific recipes as additional evidence.

P. Marins: Compleet Nederduitsch en Fransch woordenboek, Amsterdam & Dordrecht, 1720, page 173.
P. Marins: Compleet Nederduitsch en Fransch woordenboek, Amsterdam & Dordrecht, 1720, page 173. [3-173]

We had previously looked at what orange peels were sold as curaçao peels, when a spirit called curaçao was first mentioned, how it was coloured and finally what specific recipes existed up to 1855. So let’s now get a little more general and see what else can be found about the use of Curaçao oranges between 1720 – our oldest mention of Curaçao oranges – and 1855 – the publication of Pierre Duplais’ book.

P. Marins: Compleet Nederduitsch en Fransch woordenboek. Page 689. Amsterdam & Dordrecht, 1720.
P. Marins: Compleet Nederduitsch en Fransch woordenboek. Page 689. Amsterdam & Dordrecht, 1720. [3-689]

So let’s first remember the oldest document from 1720, where it was written: “CURAÇAOS or CURASSOUWSE apples, orange apples from Curaςao. Brandy on peels of Curacao apples or on orange peels. Eau de vie on curassau orange peel. CURASSOUWS-VAARDER [CURAÇAO-DRIVERS] Ship or captain going to Curaçao.[3-173] Further back in the work it was stated, “Brandy on orange peels, on peels of curaçao apples of eau de vie in which the peel of the orange of curaçao has been soaked.[3-689]

According to this definition, curaçao orange peel was macerated in brandy as early as 1720. Unfortunately, it is not clear what kind of brandy is meant. Is it a grain brandy or a wine brandy? Today, wine brandy (“Branntwein”) is the general term for all spirits produced by distillation. The original meaning, “burnt wine” is usually referred to as wine brandy (“Weinbrand”). [9] However, the corresponding encyclopaedia entry on “brandewyn” which is “burnt wine” could help us. The dictionary defines brandewyn as a distillate of wine: “BRANDEWYN, m. Uittreksel, geest van de uitgebrande wyn. De l’eau de vie.f. Du Brandevin. m.[3-141] A grain distiller is one who distils an eau de vie de grain: “BRANDER, KOORNBRANDER. Een die een Brandery op heeft. Un distillateur d’eau de vie de grain.[3-141] Does this mean that a wine brandy was used for the Curaçao, even barrel-aged like Cognac or Armagnac? We may assume that it was a wine brandy, because the dictionary clearly speaks of “brandewyn” in connection with Curaçao, not of “eau de vie de grain”.

In the Netherlands, a brandy was distilled from wine as early as the middle of the 13th century. They imported the wine needed for this. Later they brought their stills to the Cognac region so that brandy could be produced locally for export to the Netherlands. [11-184] [29-169]

Regarding the distillation of grain, it can be said that German distillers had begun distilling grain as early as 1507; this was banned in some cities as early as 1530. By 1588, Dutch distillers had also switched from distilling their genever from French wine to distilling it from barley and rye. [11-764]

The maceration of the peels is also reported in another finding from 1841. P.-H. Lepage writes: “Some time ago I had to make a very concentrated tincture of bitter orange peel (curaçao de Hollande): about six weeks after the tincture had been filtered, I noticed a considerable deposit of small, mounded, almost white crystals on the walls of the bottle that contained it.[12-583]

Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie. 1841, page 583.
Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie. 1841, page 583. [12-583]

– “Ayant eu besoin, il y a quelque temps, de préparer une teinture trés concentrée d’écorces d’oranges amàres (curaçao de Hollande): six semaines environ après que la teinture fut filtrée, je remarquai sur les parois du flacon qui la renfermait, un dépôt assez considérable de petits cristaux mamelonnés et presque blanc.[12-583]

Unfortunately, this text is not clear. We had already explained that Curaçao and also Curaçao de Hollande can be understood to mean both peels and liqueur, which is why it is not entirely clear here whether this designation meant the bitter orange peels or the tincture. However, we assume that originally distillation was not necessarily required for a curaçao liqueur, but that simple maceration was sufficient; in a sense, distillation only serves to “refine” the product. This is also supported by the recipe for Curaçao de Hollande given by Jerry Thomas in 1862 in the appendix. [13-143] There, only maceration is used, not distillation.

Curaçao recipes after 1855

Charles Tovey: British & foreign spirits. 1864, page 276.
Charles Tovey: British & foreign spirits. 1864, page 276. [14-276]

Pierre Duplais gives many variations for a Curaçao in 1855. This is not unusual, because in 1864 an English book reports that there are numerous variations of Curaçao: “CURAÇOA Takes its name from the orange peel which is used in its composition, and which is obtained from the island of Curaçoa in South America. It is said there are fifty sorts and qualities of this Liqueur. The best is manufactured in Holland.[14-276]

So what do the Curaçao recipes that were published after 1855 say? Do they differ significantly from the information given by Pierre Duplais?

John Rack: French wine and liquor manufacturer. 1863, page 194.
John Rack: French wine and liquor manufacturer. 1863, page 194. [15-194]

One can see that additional spices come into play. According to an American book published in 1863, Curaçao can also be made without distillation and spiced with cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg: “Curaçao d’Hollande. (20 gallons.) 2 lbs. of Curaçoa orange peel, 1/2 [lbs. of] Ceylon cinnamon. Let them soak in water; boil them for 5 minutes with the juice of 32 oranges and 14 gallons of white plain syrup; then add 6 gallons of alcohol, 95 per cent; strain, filter; color dark yellow with sugar coloring. (See page 59.) This recipe will make a splendid curaçao.” [15-194]Curaçao. (40 gallons.) 2 oz. essence of bitter oranges, 2 [oz. essence of] neroly, 1/4 [oz. essence of] cinnamon, 3 drachms mace, infused in alcohol. Dissolve the above essences in one gal. alcohol, 95 per cent, then put in a clean barrel. 13 gals, alcohol, 85 per cent, 26 [gals.] sugar syrup, 30 degrees, Baume, and add: 1 [gals.] perfumed spirit, as above. – 40 gals. Color with saffron or turmeric. (See “Coloring for Wines.”)” [15-194]

We will no longer quote from the other books that contain a recipe for a curaçao, as there is no added value here. If you like, you can look them up yourself. We have added what might be worth mentioning in the list:

  • 1863 in the book “French wine and liquor manufacturer” by John Rack. [15-194] [15-195]
  • In the 1866 book “Manuel du distillateur amateur à l’usage des personnes à la campagne” (“Manual of the amateur distiller for use by persons in the countryside”) by Léon André-Pontier. [16-15] [16-29]
  • In the book “Nouveau manuel complet du distillateur liquoriste” (“New complete manual of the distiller and liqueur maker”) by M. F. Malpeyre, published in 1868. [17-259] [17-260] [17-260] [17-261] [17-312] [17-313]
  • In the 1868 book “Compendium de pharmacie pratique.” (“Compendium of practical pharmacy. “) by M. Deschamps. [18-425]
  • In the 1868 book “Nouveau manuel complet du distillateur liquoriste” (“New comprehensive manual of the liquor distiller”) by Lebeaud and Julia de Fontenelle. [19-312] [19-313] [19-314]
  • In the 1869 book “Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks” by William Terrington. [20-68] [20-69]
  • In the 1875 book “Die Liqueur-Fabrikation” (“The Liqueur Manufacture”) by August Gaber. Here vanilla tincture is partly added. [28-258] [28-259]
  • In the 1877 book “Grande encyclopédie illustrée d’économie domestique” (“Great illustrated encyclopaedia of domestic economy “) by Jules Trousset. [21-1581]
  • In the 1877 book “Le cuisinier des cuisiniers” (“The Cook of Cooks”). [22-535]
  • In the 1882 book “Manuel pratique du distillateur. Fabrication des liqueures.” (“Practical manual for distillers. Manufacture of liqueurs.”) by Edouard Robinet. [23-86] [23-139] [23-140] [23-153] [23-200] [23-204] [23-238] [23-249] [23-262] [23-282] [23-283] [23-407]
  • In the 1886 book “Les cent mille recettes de la bonne cuisinière bourgeoise a la ville et a la campagne” (“The hundred thousand recipes of the good bourgeois cook in town and country”) by Sophie Wattel. [24-567] [24-568]
  • In the 1898 book “The beverages we drink. Being a popular treatise on the various kinds of drinks in common use.” (“The drinks we drink. Being a popular treatise on the various kinds of drinks in common use.”) by N. Edwards. [25-188]
  • In the 1899 book “The Flowing Bowl” by Edward Spencer. [26-193]
  • In the 1921 book “Il Liquorista – Duemila ricette e procedimenti pratici per la composizione e fabricazione dei liquori.” (“The Liquorist – Two thousand recipes and practical procedures for the composition and production of liquors.”) by A. Castoldi. [27-246] [27-427] [27-465] [27-466] [27-518] [27-532] [27-690] – Here they also use milk as an ingredient, raspberry water, rose oil, cedar oil, hyssop, angelica roots, emperor’s root, tonka beans.

The recipes differ little from Pierre Duplais’ specifications. Curaçao may or may not be distilled. What is sometimes added are various spicing and flavouring ingredients.


Let’s summarise once again our findings from the analysis of Pierre Duplais’ book from 1855. For him, curaçao is a liqueur made from distilled orange peel and bitter orange peel, sugar, alcohol and water. He alternatively states the possibility of preparing it only with previously extracted oils, and only then uses clove oil as an additional spice.

In the years before – at the beginning of the 19th century – we have not found any sources according to which additional spices were added. For a curaçao, it was enough to macerate the bitter orange peel. Distillation was not necessary.

The recipes published after 1855 also show no significant deviations. Curaçao is made by macerating bitter orange peel, sugar and water are added. Spices are not obligatory; however, if spices are added, it is no longer only cloves; other seasoning and flavouring ingredients are also mentioned.

The recipes that have been handed down are more recent, for we first found recipes for a liqueur called “Curacao” in writings from the 19th century. Nevertheless, something similar was already produced in the centuries before, only it was not called “Curacao”. We will look at these older recipes in the next part of this series.

  1. https://archive.org/details/traitdesliqueur00duplgoog P. Duplais: Traité des liqueurs et de la distillation des alcools ou le liquoriste & le distillateur modernes contenant les procédés les plus nouveaux pour la fabrication des liqueurs françaises et étrangères; fruits à l’eau-de-vie et au sucre; sirops, conserves, eaux, èsprits parfumées, vermouts et vins de liqueur; ainsi que la description complète des operations necessaires pour la distillation de tous les alcools. Tome premier. Versailes & Paris, 1855.
  2. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkoholgehalt Alkoholgehalt.
  3. https://books.google.de/books?id=QzLNeI4mpDsC&pg=PP20&lpg=PP20&dq=woorden-boek+marin&source=bl&ots=AVvKUkP7uK&sig=ACfU3U1gyOpSMbfAiH2t5_cwBgTXG7CStA&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi7x9bQpovqAhUHCZoKHVmABYAQ6AEwDXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=curacao&f=false P. Marins: Compleet Nederduitsch en Fransch woordenboek, In ‘t welk klaarlyk uitgelegd zyn de woorden van den gemeenzamen Styl, en de gebruikelykste Spreekwyzen, de eigentlyke Nederduitsche Taale uitmaakende: zoo dezelve hedendaags gesprooken en geschreeven word dor Land- en Zeeluiden; Mannen von den Tabbaerd en den Degen; in een woord, alle die in eerlyke Beroepen en nutte Wetenschappen uitblinken. Dit werk met zuiver en natuurlyk Fransch gepaard, is daarenboven noch verrykt door Historische Aanmerkingen en andere zaaken, bequaam de aandagt der Leezerste onderbauden, en de Jonge luiden de Waereldte leeren kennen. Amsterdam & Dordrecht, 1720.
  4. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grad_Stoppani Grad Stoppani.
  5. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grad_Tralles Grad Tralles.
  6. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grad_Sikes Grad Sikes.
  7. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grad_Gay-Lussac Grad Gay-Lussac.
  8. https://archive.org/details/b21533908/page/n363/mode/2up Anonymus: Apicius redivivus; or, the cook’s oracle: wherein especially the art of composing soups, sauces, and flavouring essences is made so clear and easy, by the quantity of each article being accurately stated by weight and measure, that every one may soon learn to dress a dinner, as well as the most experienced cook; being six hundred receipts, the result of actual experiments instituted in the kitchen of a physician, for the purpose of composing a culinary code for the rational epicure, and augmenting the alimentary enjoyment of private families; combining economy with elegance; and saving expense to housekeepers, and trouble to servants. London, 1817.
  9. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branntwein Branntwein.
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandy Brandy.
  11. David Wondrich & Noah Rothbaum: The Oxford companion to spirits & cocktails. ISBN 9780199311132. Oxford University Press, 2022.
  12. https://archive.org/details/journaldechimie20unkngoog/page/n594/mode/2up?q=curacao Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie. Paris, 1841.
  13. Jerry Thomas: How to Mix Drinks, Or, The Bon-vivant’s Companion, Containing Clear and Reliable Directions for Mixing All the Beverages Used in the United States, Together with the Most Popular British, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish Recipes, Embracing Punches, Juleps, Cobblers, Etc., Etc., Etc., in Endless Variety. To Which is Appended a Manual For The Manufacture of Cordials, Liquors, Fancy Syrups, Etc., Etc., After the Most Approved Methods Now Used in the Destillation of Liquors and Beverages, Designed For the Special Use of Manufacturers and Dealers in Wines and Spirits, Grocers, Tavern-Keepers, and Private Families, the Same Being Adapted to the Tteade of The United States and Canadas. The Whole Containing Over 600 Valuable Recipes by Christian Schultz. New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, 1862.
  14. https://books.google.de/books?id=ZxoZAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=curacoa&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjao8zli7XoAhVJCewKHUa4BSM4FBDoAQhaMAU#v=onepage&q=gin&f=false Charles Tovey: British & foreign spirits: their history, manufacture, properties, etc. London, 1864.
  15. https://archive.org/details/frenchwineliquor00unse/page/194/mode/2up?q=cura%C3%A7ao John Rack: French wine and liquor manufacturer. A practical guide and receipt book for the liquor merchant, being a clear and comprehensive treatise on the manufacture and imitation of brandy, rum, gin and whiskey: with practical observations and rules for the manufacture and management of all kinds of wine, by mixing, boiling, and fermentation, as practiced in Europe… New York, 1863.
  16. https://archive.org/details/BIUSante_pharma_016628/page/n29/mode/2up?q=curacao Leon André-Pontier: Manuel du distillateur amateur a l’usage des personnes a la campagne. Recueil pratique des liqueurs de table, hygiéniques, des eaux de toilette etc. suivi d’une méthode facile d’essai des vins. Paris, 1866.
  17. https://archive.org/details/nouveaumanuelco01fontgoog/page/n312/mode/2up?q=curacao M. F. Malpeyre: Nouveau manuel complet du distillateur liquoriste. Paris 1868.
  18. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ucm.5324209860&view=1up&seq=442&q1=%22bitter%20de%20hollande%22 M. Deschamps: Compendium de pharmacie pratique. Guide du pharmacien établi et de l’élève en cours d’études. Paris 1868
  19. https://archive.org/details/nouveaumanuelco01fontgoog/page/n314/mode/2up?q=%22bitter+de+hollande%22 Lebeaud & Julia de Fontenelle: Nouveau manuel complet du distillateur liquoriste. Paris, 1868.
  20. http://euvs-vintage-cocktail-books.cld.bz/1869-Cooling-Cups-and-Dainty-drinks-by-William-Terrington William Terrington: Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks. Collection of Recipes for „Cups“ and Other Compounded Drinks, and of General Information on Beverages of All Kinds. London & New York, George Routledge & Sons, 1869.
  21. https://archive.org/details/grandeencyclopedieillustreedeconomiedomestiqueetruralev1/page/n799/mode/2up?q=curacao M. Jules Trousset: Grande encyclopédie illustrée d’économie domestique et rurale grande cuisine, cuisine bourgeoise, petite cuisine des ménages, cuisines étrangères, patisserie, office, confiserie, art d’accommoder les restes, dissection, savoir-vivre, falsifications, hygiène, médecine usuelle, pharmacie domestique, art vétérinaire, herboristerie, économie rurale … phsique et chemie appliquées, connaissances usuelles, ameublement, etc. Contenant enfin toutes les connaissance indispensables de la vie practique à la ville et à la campagne et d’une application journalière. Paris [1877]
  22. https://archive.org/details/b28054532/page/n547/mode/2up?q=curacao Anonymus: Le cuisinier des cuisiniers. 1,000 recettes de cordon-bleu usuelles, faciles et économiques de cuisine et d’office … Paris, 1877
  23. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt/search?q1=curacao;id=uc1.31175007849212;view=1up;seq=325;start=1;sz=10;page=search;orient=0 Edouard Robinet: Manuel pratique du distillateur. Fabrication des liqueures. Paris, [1882]
  24. https://archive.org/details/lescentmillerece00watt/page/n299/mode/2up?q=curacao Sophie Wattel: Les cent mille recettes de la bonne cuisinière bourgeoise a la ville et a la campagne. Paris [1886].
  25. https://archive.org/details/b2153892x/page/188/mode/2up?q=curacoa Walter N. Edwards: The beverages we drink. Being a popular treatise on the various kinds of drinks in common use. London, 1898
  26. https://www.collectif1806.com/collectif-library/Collectif1806-1899-The_Flowing_Bowl-UK.pdf Edward Spencer: The Flowing Bowl. A Treatise on Drinks of All Kinds and of All Periods, Interspersed with Sundry Anecdotes and Reminiscences. London, Grant Richards, 1899.
  27. https://archive.org/details/Castoldi-Liquorista/page/n251/mode/2up?q=olandese A. Castoldi: Il Liquorista – Duemila ricette e procedimenti pratici per la composizione e fabricazione dei liquori. Milano 1921
  28. https://books.google.de/books?id=Qz7QT0VwhPIC&pg=PA258&dq=%22curacao+de+hollande%22&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5rIq12oXqAhXGM5oKHSrKDoIQ6AEILzAB#v=onepage&q=%22curacao%20de%20hollande%22&f=false August Gaber: Die Liqueur-Fabrikation. Wien, Pest, Leipzig, 1875.
  29. Camper English: Doctors and Distillers. The Remarkable Medicinal History of Beer, Wine, Spirits, and Cocktails. ISBN 9780143134923. 2022.

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Hi, I'm Armin and in my spare time I want to promote bar culture as a blogger, freelance journalist and Bildungstrinker (you want to know what the latter is? Then check out "About us"). My focus is on researching the history of mixed drinks. If I have ever left out a source you know of, and you think it should be considered, I look forward to hearing about it from you to learn something new. English is not my first language, but I hope that the translated texts are easy to understand. If there is any incomprehensibility, please let me know so that I can improve it.

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